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Chapter 12 Statehood for Texas

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1 Chapter 12 Statehood for Texas 1845-1851

2 The United States Expands
Manifest Destiny

3 Section 1 Texas: The 28th State
When Texas accepted the offer to become a state of the United States, the first task was to form the state government. In 1845, delegates from across Texas met to write a state constitution. Later that year, Texans elected their first state officers.

4 Vocabulary Legislature: government body that has power to make or
pass laws Executive Branch: part of government that carries out the laws (US: president, vice president; State: governor, lieutenant governor) Legislative Branch: part of government that makes the laws Judicial Branch: part of government that interprets and applies laws (judges, courts)

5 Vocabulary, con’t Governor: highest officer in state
government (like the president) Lieutenant Governor: second highest officer in state government (like the vice president)

6 Constitutional Convention of 1845
Texas was annexed by US in 1845 Texas had to write a constitution (used US Constitution and Constitutions of other states as examples) Delegates met in Austin on July 4, 1845 Thomas Jefferson Rusk was president of Constitutional Convention Finished writing Texas Constitution on August 28, 1845

7 Delegates Jose Antonio Navarro Only Texas born delegate
Served in Texas Senate Helped write Republic of Texas Constitution Has a county named after him James Power Born in Ireland Most of delegates were from southern states 5 delegates had signed Texas Declaration of Independence Hiram G. Runnels had helped write Mississippi Constitution

8 Provisions of the Texas Constitution of 1845
Protected homesteads from being taken away to pay debts Did not allow ministers or priests to serve in legislature Did allow settlers from other states to continue to bring slaves with them to Texas Women still had right to own land Established 3 Branches of Government

9 Established 3 Branches of Government
Executive: highest ranking officers in govt Governor Lieutenant Governor Legislative: makes the laws Senate House of Representatives Judicial: interprets the laws and applies laws in court system


11 Election of 1845 After Texas Constitution was passed, first election was held on December, 1845 Elected Officials: James Pickney Henderson—1st Governor Albert C. Horton—1st Lieutenant Governor Thomas J. Rusk and Sam Houston—1st Senators David Kaufman and Timothy Pillsbury—1st Members of Texas House of Representatives John Hemphill—chief justice of Supreme Court of Texas

12 James Pickney Henderson
Thomas J. Rusk Jose Antonio Navarro

13 Section 2 The United States and Mexico at War
Soon after Texas became a state, war broke out between Mexico and the United States. Both countries claimed Texas as part of their nation, and the United States wanted control of other territories under Mexican rule.

14 Mexican and US Policy on Texas
Mexico not happy that US annexed Texas Mexico still didn’t recognize Treaties of Velasco Claimed that Santa Anna only signed treaty because his life was in danger During the 10 years that Texas was a Republic, Mexico continued to think of Texas as belonging to Mexico Mexican leaders thought the Texas Revolution had been planned by the US Mexico warned the US that if Texas was annexed, it would mean war

15 Tensions Between Mexico and the US
Border of Texas: Rio Grande US accepted that based on Treaties of Velasco Mexico didn’t recognize Treaties of Velasco Mexico still claimed all of Texas Mexico said that border of Texas was the Nueces River (not Rio Grande)

16 Tensions, con’t Tensions between US and Mexico not only about who controlled Texas US believed in Manifest Destiny US was destined to claim all land to California and the Pacific Ocean Mexico didn’t want to give up Texas and land in California area

17 Tensions, con’t When US annexed Texas (1845), Mexico threatened war
US President (James K. Polk) sent John Slidell to Mexico to try to work things out US would pay for damages that US citizens said Mexico caused (Mexico not have to pay for the damages) In return, he asked Mexico to recognize Texas as part of US and to transfer land between Texas and California to US But, Mexican leaders refused to talk to Slidell Mexican leaders were offended that US thought Mexico would trade land for money

18 Tensions, con’t Some citizens of US (in New England) didn’t want to expand westward They thought US was just trying to expand slavery These were the people who were against the annexation of Texas

19 Fighting Breaks Out US President Polk sent General Zachary Taylor (aka Old Rough and Ready) to Neuces River with troops Mexican General Mariano Arista led Mexican troops to Rio Grande Shots were fired in April 24,1846 and War with Mexico declared on May 13, 1846

20 Texas Voices Page 273 …Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil. She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced and that the two nations are at war… In further vindication of our rights and defense of our territory, I invoke the prompt action of Congress to recognize the existence of war President James K. Polk message to Congress, May 11, 1846

21 The War with Mexico General Winfield Scott (Old Fuss and Feathers) took over General Taylor’s troops Made his way to Mexico City Invaded Mexico City in Sept, 1847…war ended there Many lives lost…US lost 13,000 men War ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo


23 Texans in the War with Mexico
About 5000 Texans fought in War with Mexico Texas Governor James P. Henderson fought Many still wanted to “Remember the Alamo” Many wanted to retaliate against those in Mier expedition Many of the Texans were Texas Rangers Very brave and daring; great fighting ability; very valued and respected fighters Mexican term for them was Texas Devils because they were fierce fighters

24 Texans in the War with Mexico, con’t
Texas Rangers, con’t Served as scouts for Generals Taylor and Scott…knew Texas landscape and helped guide troops into Mexico Famous Rangers Ben McCulloch, Samuel H. Walker, John S. Ford

25 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Ended War with Mexico Signed on February 2, 1848 Provisions Mexico agreed that Texas was now part of US Mexico surrendered land between Texas and Pacific Ocean…California This transfer of Land from Mexico to US=Cessation Included California, and future states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Wyoming, Utah, & Colorado In return, US paid Mexico $15 million and paid claims made against Mexico by Texans

26 The Gadsden Purchase 1853, US bought a long narrow strip of land along border of New Mexico and Texas Purpose: land for a railroad—ended up being the Southern Transcontinental RR James Gadsden from South Carolina convinced US to pay Santa Anna $10 million (33 cents/acre) for the land Became known as the Gadsden Purchase


28 James K. Polk John Slidell James Gadsden Mexican General
James Gadsden Mexican General Mariano Arista

29 General Zachary Taylor General Winfield Scott
General Zachary Taylor General Winfield Scott

30 Section 3 A New Western Border
After the war with Mexico, the Rio Grande was made the southern border of Texas. However, disagreement arose over Texas’ western border. This issue, along with others, was resolved by the Compromise of 1850.

31 Texas-New Mexico Border Dispute
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo established Rio Grande as southern border of Texas But, there was a dispute over Texas’ western border Texans didn’t think Rio Grande ended at El Paso but continued northward through New Mexico to source of river—San Juan Mountains in Colorado If the border continued all the way up to Colorado, about ½ of New Mexico would be in Texas—including Santa Fe


33 Texas-New Mexico Border Dispute, con’t
People in New Mexico didn’t want to be Texans People there had ties with Mexico and most spoke Spanish Lots of people there were still mad that Mirabeau Lamar tried to control New Mexico when he was president of the Republic (Santa Fe Expedition)

34 Texas’ Efforts to Gain Control of New Mexico
Texas wanted to gain control of New Mexico Texas Governor Henderson sent people up to Santa Fe to force them to surrender to Texas Santa Fe leaders refused to become Texans

35 Texas’ Efforts to Gain Control of New Mexico, con’t
By 1847, Texas had a new governor George Wood He vowed to continue to fight for control of New Mexico To strengthen claims to New Mexico, Texas created counties of Worth, Presidio, Santa Fe, and El Paso in disputed area Texas was only able to agree to get El Paso to agree to be in Texas But, by gaining El Paso, Texas secured land west of Pecos River for Texas

36 Disagreements over Slavery and Territories
Texas still a problem for the US Zachary Taylor became US president in 1848 He had to deal with issues with territories Taylor agreed to let California become a part of the US as a Free State Free State: state that didn’t support slavery

37 Disagreements over Slavery and Territories, con’t
But, if California came into to US as a Free State, then there would be more free states than slave states (wanted it to be equal number) Pro-Slavery states (like Texas) didn’t want California to be admitted to US Also, people in New Mexico and Utah territories wanted to become part of US In Washington DC, the abolitionists wanted slavery outlawed Abolitionist: person who wanted to end slavery

38 Disagreements over Slavery and Territories, con’t
The dispute over the western border of Texas added to problem of slavery Because Texas was a slave state, many people in US wanted to limit the size of Texas President Taylor and US Congress disagreed on how to handle all of these problems President Taylor wanted California admitted to US immediately He argued that people of California were struggling with problems after the Gold Rush of 1848 and needed to a state government to help the people out He had also promised the residents of California that they would be admitted to US

39 Disagreements over Slavery and Territories, con’t
But, many people in the US Congress wanted to wait until the issue over slavery was settled before admitting any more states into the US Southern members of the US Congress wanted federal government help in finding runaway slaves This law became known as the Fugitive Slave Law

40 Disagreements over Slavery and Territories, con’t
So, a Senator from Kentucky offered a compromise Henry Clay AKA “The Great Compromiser” Worked out a solution to all of the disagreements He proposed: California be admitted to US as a free state That territories of Utah and New Mexico be organized and the citizens could decide for themselves whether to be a free state or a slave state Wanted the slave trade in Washington DC to be abolished

41 Disagreements over Slavery and Territories, con’t
He proposed (continued) That the Fugitive Slave Law be put into effect To settle the “Texas Question”, he wanted Texas to give up about 40% of land in the west for about 10 million dollars Slavery was an issue in this, too, because of the decision about slavery for New Mexico

42 The Compromise of 1850 Before President Taylor would even talk about Henry Clay’s proposals, he demanded that California be admitted into the Union But, before any other action was taken, President Taylor died Vice President Millard Fillmore took over as President of US

43 The Compromise of 1850, con’t
Then, Henry Clay decided he was tired and wanted to leave Washington DC Senator Stephen A .Douglas (of Illinois) picked up where Henry Clay left off with the compromise issues Congress finally passed the Compromise of 1850

44 Provisions of the Compromise of 1850
California became a state in the US—a free state New Mexico and Utah became US Territories Slave trade (but not slavery itself) was abolished in Washington DC Fugitive Slave Law went into effect “Texas Question” was settled: Texas gave up some of it’s land to north and west and received 10 million dollars The money helped pay off debt The Texas and New Mexico Act of September 9, 1850 was put into effect This act created the present day borders of Texas

45 The Compromise of 1850, con’t
TEXAS AND THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 The Compromise of 1850, con’t Provisions of the Compromise of 1850 California became a state Utah and New Mexico became territories Slave trade was ended in Washington DC Fugitive Slave Law was put into place “Texas Question”: Texas received 10 million dollars to give up disputed territory to north and west Getting the money helped Texas get out of debt Texas and New Mexico Act of September 9, 1850: created Texas’ present day borders

46 President Millard Fillmore Henry Clay Stephen A. Douglas
President Millard Fillmore Henry Clay Stephen A. Douglas

47 The Compromise of 1850

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