3INTRODUCTIONTraditionally managers have been asked to select , develop,appraise & reward employees for their performance, but the challenge facing today’s organizations requires them to understand and manage change.Therefore they need to develop area of expertise that are useful during the change process.
4Person who act as catalysts & assume the responsibility for managing change are called as Change Agents.Change can be brought about by managers, non-managers, employees or an outside consultant.The primary goal of change agent is to help organization improve its effectiveness, performance, renewal capacity & competitive readiness.
5The Need for Change Internal Causes External Causes Crisis Falling EffectivenessCrisisOrganizational SilenceChanging Employee ExpectationChange in Work ClimateExternal CausesGlobalizationWorkforce DiversityTechnological ChangeGovernment PoliciesScarcity of ResourcesCompetition
6The wind of change is sweeping the organizations across the globe & in the uncertain times nothing is more certain than a constant change. The change agents would require the following skills to be able to keep themselves & the organization afloat in the future:
7Superb communications ability – in all directions Knowledge of the business; products/services and core work processesKeeping a business perspective – both macro (mission/vision) and micro (what line managers cope with)Planning and project management skillsManaging resistanceRisk takingManaging conflict
8Broadly speaking the most important contributions to be made through the change agent role are those that sustain the organization’s current performance and assure its future performance i.e.• Enabling people to work effectively as they plan, implement and experience change• Increasing people’s ability to manage future change
10Provides specific technical knowledge on special problems ROLEDEFINITIONWHEN APPROPRIATEADVOCATEHighly directive role in which the change agent tries to influence the client to use a certain approachWhen the client is not sure of the approach to take and needs a lot of directionTECHNICAL SPECIALISTProvides specific technical knowledge on special problemsWhen client seeks direction on a special problemTRAINERProvides information about OD or different intervention strategiesWhen client needs training in some aspects of odFACT FINDERServes as a research or data collectorWhen clients needs are very specificPROCESS SPECIALISTFacilitates meetings and group processesWhen client’s needs are for process consultationREFLECTORHelps client to understand situation by reacting to informationWhen client is not sure of the data and seeks clarification
11TYPES OF CHANGEStrategicStructuralProcess-orientedPeople-centred
13Each of these phase is extremely important & requires the leader to take concrete steps. UNFREEZING involves breaking away from the way things have been done in the past.CHANGING involves identifying & trying innovative ways to do things or doing new things.REFREEZING involves stabilizing & reinforcing the new ways or new things to do.
14Restraining Forces Driving Forces Present Balance KURT LEWIN’S second change model provides an interesting framework for expediting the acceptance of the change process. His force-field model describes that majority of the situations exist in the form of dynamic equilibrium. He believes that the balance would exist only when forces driving change are counterbalanced by the forces restraining change. This model also act as a reality check.Driving ForcesPresent BalanceRestraining Forces
156. Creating short term wins Kotter’s Model of Change Management1. Increase urgencyCreating a climate for change2. Build the guiding team3. Get the vision right4. CommunicateEngaging and enabling the organization5. Empower Action6. Creating short term wins7. Don’t let upImplementing and sustaining the change8. Reinforce
16The business environment today is ever changing in terms of technologies,market & industry. Any change from a set pattern evokes fear about the uncertainty that lies ahead.thus transformation has to be dealt with carefully & converted into an opportunity. HR managers have to take up this challenge if they have to grow & develop into becoming business partners within the organizations.They need to take the lead in managing change This involves guiding leading,enabling & motivating people.
17Change management MECHANISM OF Leader Driven Process Driven According to Axelrod, there are four approaches to change management:Leader DrivenSuitable for small and medium enterprises with owner- managersTends to be directive and non participativeProcess DrivenLed by experts or outside consultants and supported by leadersCommon in large, bureaucratic organizationWork well when change requires technical or specialized expertise
18Team Driven Change Management Common in large , manufacturing enterprises that have skilled and educated employeesInvolves change management strategies- TQM, Quality circle, Six sigmaHighly participative change effortsEstablishment of “ Parallel Organization”Change ManagementCombination of expert-driven and team-driven approachesIncorporates “Parallel Organization” conceptReinforces hierarchical top-down management
19STEPS OF PLANNED CHANGE Recognize the need for changeDevelop the goals of the changeSelect a change agentDiagnose the current climateSelect an implementation methodDevelop a planImplement the planFollow the plan and evaluate it.
20PITFALLS WHILE IMPLEMENTING CHANGES Some of these pitfalls are as follows:Faulty thinkingInadequate change processInsufficient resourcesLack of commitment to changePoor timingA culture resistant to change
21RESISTANCE TO CHANGEHere are some of the most common reasons employees resist change:Uncertainty and insecurityReaction against the way change is presentedThreats to vested interestsCynicism and lack of trustPerceptual differences and lack of understanding
22Change management principles All times involve and agree support from people within system (system = environment, processes, culture, relationships, behaviours, etc., whether personal or organisational).Understand where you/the organisation is at the moment.Understand where you want to be, when, why, and what the measures will be for having got there.Plan development towards above No.3 in appropriate achievable measurable stages.Communicate, involve, enable and facilitate involvement from people, as early and openly and as fully as is possible.
24CONCLUSIONThe basic principle has to be understood by HR managers & through them by all the employees,& only then the desired change can be brought. We therefore could conclude that HR has to play a major role in formulating & implementing change ,as it adds value to the most important resource,i.e. the human resource.
26Fortune India Ltd. is a manufacturing company located in Delhi Fortune India Ltd. is a manufacturing company located in Delhi. The company was doing well from the past thirty years and the people involved in the operations were confident in their respective areas of operations as they were doing it from quite some time. There was a feeling among some of the employees that it is becoming monotonous kind of an affair although the efficiency has gone very high due to the fact that the same person is doing the job from quite some time.A recent change in the policy and procedures of the company, it was made possible for the employees to engage in job rotation. Shyam is In-charge of a manufacturing operation from the past five years and he has three subordinates directly reporting to him - Vijay, Sameer, Rahul. Vijay has been working in the same job position from the past twenty years, whereas Sameer from the pastfive years and Rahul from the past two years in the same job position.
27Shyam being quite young and dynamic welcomed the change in the policy and procedures as it amounts to giving more options to the people those who are dynamic and look for more challenges. Moreover it provides more holistic perspective about the organisation. Shyam perceived that it is a win/win situation for both the employees and the organisation.Shyam called a meeting to discuss the possibility of the adoption of job rotation. As the meeting progressed, Shyam became aware that out of three subordinates, two wanted to change to a job rotation schedule, whereas one is not at all interested for the same.Shyam was in a fix and adjourned the meeting. After giving a considerable thought to the problem, he was able to crystallize on four alternative approaches that may be followed to manage this conflict situation:
28Forget about Job rotation in this unit. Issue the orders that job rotation is mandatory for all the three subordinates with immediate effect.Respect the feelings of each one and workout an arrangement where job rotation occurs for a while, is stopped for a while, and so on, thus allowing each person to have his or her way for some time.Call the meeting again and discuss the pros and cons of the proposed change and that their interpersonal relationship are very important than any job rotation. Try to develop a consensus for job rotation.
29Questions:Which of the four approaches should Shyam choose to follow in this situation? Why? Or Should an alternative approach be taken?What special interpersonal skills should Shyam need to succeed in this problem situation? Defend your answer.
30BECOMING A CHANGE AGENT Cultivate that “CAN DO” attitudeYou Don’t Have to be GreatTo Get StartedBut You Have to Get StartedTo Be Great