Traditionally managers have been asked to select, develop,appraise & reward employees for their performance, but the challenge facing todays organizations requires them to understand and manage change.Therefore they need to develop area of expertise that are useful during the change process.
Person who act as catalysts & assume the responsibility for managing change are called as Change Agents. Change can be brought about by managers, non-managers, employees or an outside consultant. The primary goal of change agent is to help organization improve its effectiveness, performance, renewal capacity & competitive readiness.
Internal Causes Falling Effectiveness Crisis Organizational Silence Changing Employee Expectation Change in Work Climate External Causes Globalization Workforce Diversity Technological Change Government Policies Scarcity of Resources Competition
The wind of change is sweeping the organizations across the globe & in the uncertain times nothing is more certain than a constant change. The change agents would require the following skills to be able to keep themselves & the organization afloat in the future:
Superb communications ability – in all directions Knowledge of the business; products/services and core work processes Keeping a business perspective – both macro (mission/vision) and micro (what line managers cope with) Planning and project management skills Managing resistance Risk taking Managing conflict
Broadly speaking the most important contributions to be made through the change agent role are those that sustain the organizations current performance and assure its future performance i.e. Enabling people to work effectively as they plan, implement and experience change Increasing peoples ability to manage future change
VARIOUS ROLES PERFORMED BY CHANGE AGENT
ROLEDEFINITIONWHEN APPROPRIATE ADVOCATEHighly directive role in which the change agent tries to influence the client to use a certain approach When the client is not sure of the approach to take and needs a lot of direction TECHNICAL SPECIALIST Provides specific technical knowledge on special problems When client seeks direction on a special problem TRAINERProvides information about OD or different intervention strategies When client needs training in some aspects of od FACT FINDER Serves as a research or data collector When clients needs are very specific PROCESS SPECIALIST Facilitates meetings and group processes When clients needs are for process consultation REFLECTORHelps client to understand situation by reacting to information When client is not sure of the data and seeks clarification
Each of these phase is extremely important & requires the leader to take concrete steps. UNFREEZING involves breaking away from the way things have been done in the past. CHANGING involves identifying & trying innovative ways to do things or doing new things. REFREEZING involves stabilizing & reinforcing the new ways or new things to do.
KURT LEWINS second change model provides an interesting framework for expediting the acceptance of the change process. His force-field model describes that majority of the situations exist in the form of dynamic equilibrium. He believes that the balance would exist only when forces driving change are counterbalanced by the forces restraining change. This model also act as a reality check. Driving Forces Present Balance Restraining Forces
1. Increase urgency 2. Build the guiding team 3. Get the vision right 4. Communicate 5. Empower Action 7. Dont let up 8. Reinforce 6. Creating short term wins Creating a climate for change Engaging and enabling the organization Implementing and sustaining the change
The business environment today is ever changing in terms of technologies,market & industry. Any change from a set pattern evokes fear about the uncertainty that lies ahead.thus transformation has to be dealt with carefully & converted into an opportunity. HR managers have to take up this challenge if they have to grow & develop into becoming business partners within the organizations. They need to take the lead in managing change This involves guiding leading,enabling & motivating people.
According to Axelrod, there are four approaches to change management: Leader Driven Suitable for small and medium enterprises with owner- managers Tends to be directive and non participative Process Driven Led by experts or outside consultants and supported by leaders Common in large, bureaucratic organization Work well when change requires technical or specialized expertise
Team Driven Common in large, manufacturing enterprises that have skilled and educated employees Involves change management strategies- TQM, Quality circle, Six sigma Highly participative change efforts Establishment of Parallel Organization Change Management Combination of expert- driven and team-driven approaches Incorporates Parallel Organization concept Reinforces hierarchical top-down management
I. Recognize the need for change II. Develop the goals of the change III. Select a change agent IV. Diagnose the current climate V. Select an implementation method VI. Develop a plan VII. Implement the plan VIII. Follow the plan and evaluate it.
Some of these pitfalls are as follows: Faulty thinking Inadequate change process Insufficient resources Lack of commitment to change Poor timing A culture resistant to change
Here are some of the most common reasons employees resist change: Uncertainty and insecurity Reaction against the way change is presented Threats to vested interests Cynicism and lack of trust Perceptual differences and lack of understanding
All times involve and agree support from people within system (system = environment, processes, culture, relationships, behaviours, etc., whether personal or organisational). Understand where you/the organisation is at the moment. Understand where you want to be, when, why, and what the measures will be for having got there. Plan development towards above No.3 in appropriate achievable measurable stages. Communicate, involve, enable and facilitate involvement from people, as early and openly and as fully as is possible.
SponsorshipPlanningMeasurementEngagement Support structures
The basic principle has to be understood by HR managers & through them by all the employees,& only then the desired change can be brought. We therefore could conclude that HR has to play a major role in formulating & implementing change,as it adds value to the most important resource,i.e. the human resource.
CASE STUDY CHANGE MANAGEMENT
Fortune India Ltd. is a manufacturing company located in Delhi. The company was doing well from the past thirty years and the people involved in the operations were confident in their respective areas of operations as they were doing it from quite some time. There was a feeling among some of the employees that it is becoming monotonous kind of an affair although the efficiency has gone very high due to the fact that the same person is doing the job from quite some time. A recent change in the policy and procedures of the company, it was made possible for the employees to engage in job rotation. Shyam is In-charge of a manufacturing operation from the past five years and he has three subordinates directly reporting to him - Vijay, Sameer, Rahul. Vijay has been working in the same job position from the past twenty years, whereas Sameer from the past five years and Rahul from the past two years in the same job position.
Shyam being quite young and dynamic welcomed the change in the policy and procedures as it amounts to giving more options to the people those who are dynamic and look for more challenges. Moreover it provides more holistic perspective about the organisation. Shyam perceived that it is a win/win situation for both the employees and the organisation. Shyam called a meeting to discuss the possibility of the adoption of job rotation. As the meeting progressed, Shyam became aware that out of three subordinates, two wanted to change to a job rotation schedule, whereas one is not at all interested for the same. Shyam was in a fix and adjourned the meeting. After giving a considerable thought to the problem, he was able to crystallize on four alternative approaches that may be followed to manage this conflict situation:
1.Forget about Job rotation in this unit. 2.Issue the orders that job rotation is mandatory for all the three subordinates with immediate effect. 3.Respect the feelings of each one and workout an arrangement where job rotation occurs for a while, is stopped for a while, and so on, thus allowing each person to have his or her way for some time. 4.Call the meeting again and discuss the pros and cons of the proposed change and that their interpersonal relationship are very important than any job rotation. Try to develop a consensus for job rotation.
Questions: (a)Which of the four approaches should Shyam choose to follow in this situation? Why? Or Should an alternative approach be taken? (b)What special interpersonal skills should Shyam need to succeed in this problem situation? Defend your answer.
Cultivate that CAN DO attitude You Dont Have to be Great To Get Started But You Have to Get Started To Be Great