Presentation on theme: "Full Inclusion as Disclosing Tablet Revealing the Flaws in Our Present System Mara Sapon-Shevin."— Presentation transcript:
Full Inclusion as Disclosing Tablet Revealing the Flaws in Our Present System Mara Sapon-Shevin
The red tablets dentists give to children to help them learn to brush better are called disclosing tablets. The red dye sticks to and discloses the areas that require further attention. It is possible to look at full inclusion as a disclosing tablet. Attempting to integrate students with significant educational and behavioral challenges tells us a lot about the ways in which our schools are unimaginative, under resourced, unresponsive, and simply inadequate. Full inclusion did not create these problems, but it shows us where the problems are.
Myth: Inclusion is being imposed on schools by outside ideologues and unrealistic parents who do not accept their childs disability. Mainstreaming: putting selected students with disabilities into general classrooms when a good match could be made. Integration: trying to mesh the systems of general and special education. Inclusion: changing existing classrooms and structures so that all students can be served will within a unified system. Proved inadequate to the task of changing classrooms so that students fit in. Showed the need for unified services and collaboration, the importance of good communication and problem solving. Not a merging of previous systems but trying to create a new, improved, more inclusive system for all students.
Myth: Inclusionists only care about students with significant disabilities. The fear is that students with mild learning disabilities and needs will get lost in general education classes with no support. Inclusion should involve changing the nature and quality of the general education classroom.
Myth: Inclusionists are driven only by values and philosophy - there is no research and no data. What counts as research? What data is collected? What defines success? Should inclusion programs have to prove they are better than segregated programs? Baker, Wang,, & Walberg, 1994/1995 Should the burden of proof be on those who would maintain students in more restrictive environments? Fuchs & Fuchs, 1994/1995
Myth: Segregation in not inherently a problem – it is only bad segregation that is a problem. Certainly racial segregation is a great evil and segregation that is forced and universal and unrelated to legitimate educational purposes certainly in wrong. But when separate programs are freely chosen and placement decisions are made on a case-by-case basis - not forced, not universal - I think its inappropriate to call that segregation. (Kauffman) Is it freely chosen? Is it forced? Is it case-by-case? Do parents have real choices?
Myth: The system isnt broken – why are we messing with it? We only need to do special education better to make it work. Inclusion advocates tend to look for more systemic, structural change; they do not see the problems as being linked to the quality or commitment of those who provide services but as more basic, requiring changes in more than just personnel.
Myth: Inclusionists think we need change because special educators are bad or incompetent. No… they want to use those talents and skills so ALL students can benefit from highly specialized teaching strategies and adaptations.
Myth: Inclusion advocates believe special educators are extinct (or should become that way.) Special education becomes a set of services rather than a place. Special educators are educators with special skills, not educators who work with special children.
Myth: It takes a special person to work with those kids. It takes a special person to work with any/all kids!
Myth: Inclusion is beyond the reach of the already overburdened general education teacher. Adding students with disabilities without committing the necessary resources and support is unethical as well as ineffective. Full-time aide, planning and collaboration time with other teachers, modified curriculum and resources, administrative support, ongoing emotional support.
Myth: Were talking about the same regular classrooms you and I grew up with. If those classrooms were not good before, why are we returning there? Inclusive classrooms are not and cannot be the same rigidly structured, everyone-on-the- same-page, frontal teaching, individually staffed classrooms we remember.
Myth: The curriculum of the general education classroom will get watered down and distorted. Curriculum must be structured as multi-level, participatory and flexible. Not watered down or dumb down
Myth: Special services must take place in special places. Inclusion does not mean abandoning the special help and support that students with disabilities truly need. (occupational therapy, speech therapy, physical therapy, etc.) Services are provided within more normalized settings, without the isolation and stigma often associated with special education services.
Myth: Without special education classes, children with disabilities will not learn functional life skills – the things they really need to know. Creative teachers (with adequate support) can find numerous ways to incorporate functional life skills into more typically academic settings.
Myth: The only way to keep special children safe is to keep them away form other children. If you include them you are setting them up to be victims; you are setting them up for failure. They can only feel good about themselves if theyre with their own kind. We cannot keep students with disabilities safe by sheltering them. They have to live in the real world. When students grow up together, sharing school experiences and activities, they learn to see beyond superficial differences (race, religion, economic status, skills and ability, physical, emotional, and learning differences) and to connect as human beings.
Myth: Inclusion values social goals above educational goals. All learning is social and occurs in a social environment.
Myth: Inclusion is a favor we are doing for children with disabilities at the cost of other childrens education. There is no evidence that the education of other students suffers in any way from the inclusion process.
Myth: It takes years of planning and preparation before you can start to do inclusion. No teacher, school, and district ever feel truly ready to begin inclusion, and what is most necessary is ongoing support and commitment. Although some aspects of the inclusion process become easier, they still require time and planning because every child and every situation is different.
Myth: If we just ignore inclusion long enough and hard enough, it will go away. Parents and teachers are not likely to want to go back to segregated programming.
Conclusion What is at stake is our commitment as a democracy to educate all children to the best of their abilities and to teach them all to be responsible, caring citizens, cognizant of their interrelationships and their mutual needs.
Well have to change the way we teach… Dont we believe that the curriculum already needs changing, is changing, and will be improved for all children by being reconceptualized more broadly and divergently?
Well have to pay close attention to the social dynamics… Wouldnt improvements in classroom climate have a salutary effect on all students?
Well have to support teachers in their efforts at change… Dont all teachers rise to higher expectations when they are treated as professionals who need thinking and planning time? To do inclusion well will require changes in curriculum, pedagogy, staff development, school climate, and structures. There is considerable evidence that the kinds of changes necessitated by inclusion are consistent with and often can be a catalyst for broader, far- reaching school restructuring and reform efforts.
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