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Strategies LLCTaxonomy May 16, 2005Copyright 2005 Taxonomy Strategies LLC. All rights reserved. FAQs About Taxonomies & Metadata Joseph A. Busch & Ron.

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Presentation on theme: "Strategies LLCTaxonomy May 16, 2005Copyright 2005 Taxonomy Strategies LLC. All rights reserved. FAQs About Taxonomies & Metadata Joseph A. Busch & Ron."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strategies LLCTaxonomy May 16, 2005Copyright 2005 Taxonomy Strategies LLC. All rights reserved. FAQs About Taxonomies & Metadata Joseph A. Busch & Ron Daniel, Jr.

2 2 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Agenda 9:00Who are we? 9:10What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30Break 10:45What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45Any more questions? 12:00Adjourn

3 3 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Who is Joseph Busch? Over 25 years in the business of organized information Founder, Taxonomy Strategies Director, Solutions Architecture, Interwoven VP, Infoware, Metacode Technologies Program Manager, Getty Foundation Manager, Pricewaterhouse Metadata and taxonomies community leadership President, American Society for Information Science & Technology Director, Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Adviser, National Research Council Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Reviewer, National Science Foundation Division of Information and Intelligent Systems Founder, Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services

4 4 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Who is Ron Daniel, Jr.? Over 15 years in the business of metadata & automatic classification Principal, Taxonomy Strategies Standards Architect, Interwoven Senior Information Scientist, Metacode Technologies Technical Staff Member, Los Alamos National Laboratory Metadata and taxonomies community leadership Chair, PRISM (Publishers Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata) working group Acting Chair, XML Linking working group Member, RDF working groups Co-editor, PRISM, XPointer, 3 IETF RFCs, and Dublin Core 1 & 2 reports.

5 5 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Who has Taxonomy Strategies worked with? Government Commodity Futures Trading Commission Defense Intelligence Agency ERIC Federal Aviation Administration Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Forest Service GSA Office of Citizen Services (www.firstgov.gov)www.firstgov.gov Head Start Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore NASA (nasataxonomy.jpl.nasa.gov)nasataxonomy.jpl.nasa.gov Small Business Administration Social Security Administration USDA Economic Research Service USDA e-Government Program (www.usda.gov)www.usda.gov International orgs & Non-profits CEN IDEAlliance IMF OCLC Commercial Allstate Insurance Blue Shield of California Debevoise & Plimpton Halliburton Hewlett Packard Motorola PeopleSoft Pricewaterhousecoopers Siderean Software Sprint Time Inc. Commercial subcontracts Agency.com – Top financial services Critical Mass – Fortune 50 retailers Deloitte Consulting – Big credit card Gistics/OTB – Direct selling giant

6 6 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information What we do Organize Stuff

7 7 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Who are you? What do you want out of today? Government / NGO / SME / Global 2000? IT / Library & IM / Public Affairs / Product Management / Engineering / HR & Finance / Other? Webmaster / Technical / Researcher / Editorial / Supervisory / Executive? Competing session – Search & Content Management: Putting the Puzzle Pieces Together What brought you HERE instead of THERE?

8 8 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Agenda 9:00Who are we? 9:10What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30Break 10:45What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45Any more questions? 12:00Adjourn

9 9 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information What is metadata? Different definitions Library & Information Science Author/Title/Subject Controlled Vocabularies for Subject Codes (e.g. Dewey) Authority Files for Author Names Database Tables/Columns/ Datatypes/Relationships References for some values

10 10 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information What is metadata? Another view of Dublin Core Asset metadata – Who, Where & When: Title, Creator, Publisher, Contributor, Date, Type, Format, Identifier, Source, Language Subject metadata – What & Why: Subject, Description, Coverage Relational metadata – Links between and to: Relation Use metadata – How can it be used: Rights & Permissions Functionality Difficult to Generate Better resource description = Better navigation & discovery

11 11 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Are there extensions to the Dublin Core? Elements 1.Identifier 2.Title 3.Creator 4.Contributor 5.Publisher 6.Subject 7.Description 8.Coverage 9.Format 10.Type 11.Date 12.Relation 13.Source 14.Rights 15.Language Abstract Access rights Alternative Audience Available Bibliographic citation Conforms to Created Date accepted Date copyrighted Date submitted Education level Extent Has format Has part Has version Is format of Is part of Is referenced by Is replaced by Is required by Issued Is version of License Mediator Medium Modified Provenance References Replaces Requires Rights holder Spatial Table of contents Temporal Valid Refinements Box DCMIType DDC IMT ISO3166 ISO639-2 LCC LCSH MESH Period Point RFC1766 RFC3066 TGN UDC URI W3CTDF Encodings Collection Dataset Event Image Interactive Resource Moving Image Physical Object Service Software Sound Still Image Text Types

12 12 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Element Data TypeLengthSourcePurpose Asset Metadata Unique IDIntegerFixedSystem suppliedBasic accountability Recipe TitleStringVariableLicensed ContentText search & results display Recipe summaryStringVariableLicensed ContentContent Main IngredientsListVariable Main Ingredients vocabulary Key index to retrieve & aggregate recipes, & generate shopping list Subject Metadata Meal TypesListVariableMeal Types vocab Browse or group recipes & filter search results CuisinesListVariableCuisines CoursesListVariableCourses vocab Cooking MethodFlagFixedCooking vocab Link Metadata Recipe ImagePointerVariableProduct GroupMerchandize products Use Metadata RatingStringVariableLicensed ContentFilter, rank, & evaluate recipes Release DateDateFixedProduct GroupPublish & feature new recipes What is metadata: A scheme for recipes

13 13 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Biological taxonomy place an organism in one and only one place. What is a taxonomy? Systematics view KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Canidae Canis C. familiari Linnaeus … Pets Dogs Farm Animals Mammals But most of the time things belong to more than one category. Pragmatic

14 14 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Agenda 9:00Who are we? 9:10What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30Break 10:45What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45Any more questions? 12:00Adjourn

15 15 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Are there other organizational schemes? TypeRemarks Synonym Ring Connects a series of terms together Treats them as equivalent for search purposes Authority File Used to control variant names with a preferred term Typically used for names of countries, individuals, organizations Classification Scheme An arrangement of knowledge Does not follow taxonomy rules Usually enumerated; ie, LC or Dewey Thesaurus Expresses semantic relationships of: Hierarchy (broader & narrower terms) Equivalence (synonyms) Associative (related terms) Ontology Resembles faceted taxonomy but uses richer semantic relationships among terms and attributes and strict specification rules

16 16 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Another point of view …. Source: Amy Warner. Metadata and Taxonomies for a More Flexible Information Architecture (http://www.lexonomy.com/presentations/metadataAndTaxonomies.ppt)http://www.lexonomy.com/presentations/metadataAndTaxonomies.ppt TaxonomiesOntologies

17 17 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information JurisdictionIndustry Impact BRM ImpactForm TypeAgencyAudienceKeyword Topic Taxonomic metadata – e-Forms example 0001 Legislative 1000 Judicial 1100 Executive Office of Pres 0003 Exec Depts 1200 Agriculture 1300 Commerce 9700 Defense 9100 Education 8900 Energy 7500 HHS 7000 DHS 8600 HUD 1400 Interior 1500 Justice 1600 Labor 1900 State 6900 Transport 2000 Treasury 3600 Veterans Ind Agencies Intl Orgs Application Approval Claim Information request Information submission Instructions Legal filing Payment Procurement Renewal Reservation Service request Test Other input Other transaction Agriculture & food Commerce Communica- tions Education Energy Env pro Foreign rels Govt Health & safety Housing & comm dev Labor Law Named grps National def Nat resources Recreation Sci & tech Social pgms Transport All General Citizen Business Govt Employee Native American Non- resident Tourist Special group 00 Generic 11 Agriculture 21 Mining 22 Utilities 23 Construct Manuf 42 Wholesale Retail Trans 51 Info 52 Finance 54 Profession 55 Mgmt 56 Support 61 Education 62 Health Care 71 Arts 72 Hospitality 81 Other Services 92 Public Admin Federal State + Local + Other + Citizen Srvcs Social Srvs Defense Disasters Econ Dev Education Energy Env Mgmt Law Enf Judicial Correctional Health Security Income Sec Intelligence Intl Affairs Nat Resour Transport Workforce Science Delivery Support Management Taxonomies Metadata Elements

18 18 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Why use faceted taxonomies? 10,000 4 independent categories of 10 nodes each have the same discriminatory power as one hierarchy of 10,000 nodes (10 4 ) Easier to maintain Can be easier to navigate

19 19 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Agenda 9:00Who are we? 9:10What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40How do I get a good taxonomy? Can I get a taxonomy off-the-shelf or create one with software? How do you know it is good? How do you build or modify to make it good? 10:05How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30Break 10:45What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45Any more questions? 12:00Adjourn

20 20 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information How do I get a good Taxonomy? – Seven practical rules 1) Incremental, extensible process that identifies and enables users, and engages stakeholders. 2) Quick implementation that provides measurable results as quickly as possible. 3) Not monolithichas separately maintainable facets. 4) Re-uses existing IP as much as possible. 5) A means to an end, and not the end in itself. 6) Not perfect, but it does the job it is supposed to dosuch as improving search and navigation. 7) Improved over time, and maintained.

21 21 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Can I get a taxonomy off the shelf? Sure: There are usually license fees, but they will be less than the effort to develop an equivalent taxonomy. The voice of experience says these will usually not be what you want. We recommend: Adopt a faceted approach. Reuse existing (esp. internal) vocabularies for as many of the facets as reasonable. Plan on doing full-custom Content Type and Subject taxonomies.

22 22 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Sources for 8 common taxonomies TaxonomyDefinitionPotential Sources OrganizationOrganizational structure.FIPS 95-2, U.S. Government Manual, Your organizational structure, etc. Content TypeStructured list of the various types of content being managed or used. DC Types, AGLS Document Type, AAT Information Forms, Your records management policy, etc. IndustryBroad market categories such as lines of business, life events, or industry codes. FIPS 66, SIC, NAICS, Your market segments, etc. LocationPlace of operations or constituencies. FIPS 5-2, FIPS 55-3, ISO 3166, UN Statistics Div, US Postal Service, Your sales regions, etc. FunctionFunctions and processes performed to accomplish mission and goals. FEA Business Reference Model, Enterprise Ontology, AAT Functions, Your business functions, etc. TopicBusiness topics relevant to your mission & goals. Federal Register Thesaurus, NAL Agricultural Thesaurus, LCSH, Your research areas, etc. AudienceSubset of constituents to whom a piece of content is directed or intended to be used. GEM, ERIC Thesaurus, IEEE LOM, Your psycho-graphics or personas, etc. Products & Services Names of products/programs & services. ERP system, Your products and services, etc.

23 23 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information What about automatically created taxonomies? Documents can be clustered based on similarities and differences. Problems: Typically only a single hierarchy No overall plan Results hard for people to navigate What does North mean on this map?

24 24 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information What should I expect from automatic taxonomy construction software? Software can scan large quantities of content and extract statistically significant words and phrases. Example: Archive of 10 publications was analyzed for topics significant to copyright. Software does a poor job of de-duplication turning those significant words and phrases into a larger structure discriminating between gold and garbage Software is good for getting an understanding of the key phrases in a large amount of content providing test cases for evaluating a taxonomy Source: Sample data courtesy of Randy Marcinko and nStein.

25 25 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information How can I test a Taxonomy? – Qualitative methods MethodProcessValidation Walk-throughsShow and explain Approach Consistency to rules Appropriateness to task Usability TestingContextual analysis (card sorting, scenario testing, etc.) Tasks are completed successfully Time to complete task is reduced User SatisfactionSurvey Reaction to new interface Reaction to search results Tagging samplesTag sample content with taxonomy Content fit Fills out content inventory Training materials for people & algorithms Basis for quantitative methods

26 26 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Quantitative Method – How evenly does it divide the content? Background: Documents do not distribute uniformly across categories Zipf (1/x) distribution is expected behavior 80/20 rule in action (actually 70/20 rule) Methodology: Part of alpha test of content type for corporate intranet 115 URLs selected at random from search index were manually categorized. Inaccessible files and junk were removed Results: Results were slightly more uniform than the Zipf distribution, which is better than expected

27 27 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Quantitative Method – How intuitive (repeatable) are the categorizations? Methodology: Closed Card Sort For alpha test of a grocery site 15 Testers put each of 100 best- selling products into one of 10 pre-defined categories Categories where fewer than 14 of 15 testers put product into same category were flagged Results: % of Testers Cumulative % of Products 15/1554% 14/1570% 13/1577% 12/1583% 11/1585% <11/15100% In the trade, Corn Tortillas are a Dairy item! Cocoa Drinks – Powder is best categorized in both Beverages and Grocery.

28 28 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Quantitative Method – How does taxonomy shape match that of content? Term Group% Terms % Docs Administrators Community Groups Counselors Federal Funds Recipients and Applicants Librarians News Media Other Parents and Families Policymakers Researchers School Support Staff Student Financial Aid Providers Students Teachers Source: Courtesy Keith Stubbs, US. Dept. of Ed. Background: Hierarchical taxonomies allow comparison of fit between content and taxonomy areas Methodology: 25,380 resources tagged with taxonomy of 179 terms. (Avg. of 2 terms per resource) Counts of terms and documents summed within taxonomy hierarchy Results: Roughly Zipf distributed ( top 20 terms: 79%; top 30 terms: 87%) Mismatches between term% and document% flagged

29 29 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information How do large corporations typically extend the Dublin Core? Base: 20 corporate information managers Source: CEN/ISSS Workshop on Dublin Core. Guidance information for the deployment of Dublin Core metadata in Corporate Environments (http://www.cenorm.be/cenorm/businessdomains/businessdomains/isss/cwa/cwa15247.asp)http://www.cenorm.be/cenorm/businessdomains/businessdomains/isss/cwa/cwa15247.asp

30 30 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Agenda 9:00Who are we? 9:10What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05How do I associate the taxonomy with content? How are we going to populate metadata elements with complete and consistent values? What can we expect to get from automatic classifiers? What kinds of tools do people use? How do different automatic classification tools compare? What else should I keep in mind? 10:30Break 10:45What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45Any more questions? 12:00Adjourn

31 31 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information General remarks on tagging Province of authors (SMEs) or editors? Taxonomy often highly granular to meet task and re-use needs. Vocabulary dependent on originating department. The more tags there are (and the more values for each tag), the more hooks to the content. If there are too many, authors will resist and use general tags (if available) Automatic classification tools exist, and are valuable, but results are not as good as humans can do. Semi-automated is best. Degree of human involvement is a cost/benefit tradeoff.

32 32 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information What methods do large companies use to create & maintain metadata? Base: 20 corporate information managers Source: CEN/ISSS Workshop on Dublin Core. Guidance information for the deployment of Dublin Core metadata in Corporate Environments (http://www.cenorm.be/cenorm/businessdomains/businessdomains/isss/cwa/cwa15247.asp)http://www.cenorm.be/cenorm/businessdomains/businessdomains/isss/cwa/cwa15247.asp

33 33 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information How do tools compare? Analyst viewpoint Accuracy Level highlow Content Volumes low high

34 34 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information What accuracy should we expect from an automatic classifier? Classification Performance is measured by Inter-cataloger agreement Trained librarians agree less than 80% of the time Errors are subtle differences in judgment, or big goofs Automatic classification struggles to match human performance Exception: Entity recognition can exceed human performance Classifier performance limited by algorithms available, which is limited by development effort Very wide variance in one vendors performance depending on who does the implementation, and how much time they have to do it 1)80/20 tradeoff where 20% of effort gives 80% of performance. 2)Smart implementation of inexpensive tools will outperform naive implementations of world-class tools. Accuracy Development Effort/ Licensing Expense Regexps Trained Librarians potential performance gain

35 35 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information How do tools compare? Pragmatic viewpoint Accuracy Level highlow Content Volumes low high

36 36 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information What kind of metadata creation and maintenance process is needed? Even purely automatic meta-tagging systems need a manual error correction procedure. Should add a QA sampling mechanism Tagging models: Author-generated Central librarians Hybrid – central auto-tagging service, distributed manual review and correction Compose in Template Submit to CMS Analyst Editor Review content Problem? Copywriter Copy Edit content Problem? Har d Cop y Web site Y YN N Approve/Edit metadata Automatically fill-in metadata Tagging Tool Sys Admin Sample of author-generated metadata workflow.

37 37 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Tagging tool example: Interwoven MetaTagger Manual form fill-in w/ check boxes, pull-down lists, etc. Auto keyword & summarization

38 38 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Tagging tool example: Interwoven MetaTagger Auto-categorization Parse & lookup (recognize names) Rules & pattern matching

39 39 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Where do I put the metadata? Where can I store metadata? In the content – HTML Headers, File properties, etc. In a centralized repository – Search index, Metadata database, etc. Where should I store metadata? It depends. If you are moving files through a process, putting it in the file keeps it from getting dropped at system borders. If you are doing search across multiple documents, it has to be at least copied out of the files. If you make copies of files and modify them, consistent in-file metadata will be impossible. Real question is not where to STORE the metadata, it is how to MAINTAIN the metadata. Web CMS as an example

40 40 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Agenda 9:00Who are we? 9:10What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30Break 10:45What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45Any more questions? 12:00Adjourn

41 41 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Agenda 9:00Who are we? 9:10What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30Break 10:45What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? Does adding a taxonomy mean replacing my search engine? How are they used behind the scenes in a search implementation How are they used in the Search UI to aid searching? How can we make our current search engine better? 11:15How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45Any more questions? 12:00Adjourn

42 42 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information How to fix search? … Add metadata to search on! Adding metadata to unstructured content allows it to be managed like structured content. Applications that use structured content work better. Enriching content with structured metadata is critical for supporting search and personalized content delivery. Content that has been adequately tagged with metadata can be leveraged in usage tracking, personalization and improved searching. Better structure equals better access: Taxonomy serves as a framework for organizing the ever-growing and changing information within a company. The many dimensions of taxonomy can greatly facilitate Web site design, content management, and search engineering. If well done, taxonomy will allow for structured Web content, leading to improved information access.

43 43 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information How does Google do so well without metadata? They dont, they just use particular types of metadata: Number of incoming links PageRank for each incoming link Text of incoming links

44 44 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Dublin Core framework for corporate use Not just 15 elements A framework to enable cross-resource exploration and use Dublin Core is framework for integration metadata at BellSouth Source: Courtesy of Todd Stephens, BellSouth

45 45 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Element Data TypeLength Req. / RepeatSourcePurpose Asset Metadata Unique IDIntegerFixed1System suppliedBasic accountability Recipe TitleStringVariable1Licensed ContentText search & results display Recipe summaryStringVariable1Licensed ContentContent Main IngredientsListVariable? Main Ingredients vocabulary Key index to retrieve & aggregate recipes, & generate shopping list Subject Metadata Meal TypesListVariable*Meal Types vocab Browse or group recipes & filter search results CuisinesListVariable*Cuisines CoursesListVariable*Courses vocab Cooking MethodFlagFixed*Cooking vocab Link Metadata Recipe ImagePointerVariable?Product GroupMerchandize products Use Metadata RatingStringVariable1Licensed ContentFilter, rank, & evaluate recipes Release DateDateFixed1Product GroupPublish & feature new recipes Legend: ? – 1 or more * - 0 or more What about Search? Integration Metadata dc:identifier dc:title dc:description X X X X X dcterms:hasPart dc:date dc:type=recipe, dc:format=text/html, dc:language=en

46 46 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Agenda 9:00Who are we? 9:10What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:10How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30Break 10:45What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:30How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45Any more questions? 12:00Adjourn

47 47 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information How do I sell Management on a Taxonomy Project? Dont sell metadata or taxonomy, sell the vision of what you want to be able to do. Clearly understand what the problem is and what the opportunities are. Do the calculus (costs and benefits) Design the taxonomy (in terms of LOE) in relation to the value at hand.

48 48 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Fundamentals of metadata ROI Tagging content using metadata and a taxonomy are costs, not benefits. There is no benefit without exposing the tagged content to users in some way that cuts costs or improves revenues. Putting metadata and a taxonomy into operation requires UI changes and/or backend system changes, as well as data changes. You need to determine those changes, and their costs, as part of the ROI.

49 49 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information What are the typical metadata ROI scenarios? Catalog site Increased sales. Increased productivity. Customer support Cutting costs. Increased sales. Compliance Avoiding penalties. Knowledge worker productivity Less time searching, more time working.

50 50 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Guided Navigation 2-3 clicks to product No dead ends Metadata ROI: Catalog site

51 51 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Metadata ROI: Catalog site Increased sales Product findability. Product cross-sells and up- sells. Customer loyalty. 1-5% increase in sales $57.6B sales (04) $2.1B net income (04) Enterprise portal cost $6M $600M to $2B/year $21M to $105M/year 1-5% increase in productivity $50K average cost per employee 310,400 employees (04) $155M to $776M/year Source: Proforma based on Hoovers data.

52 52 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Metadata ROI: Customer support model Policy categories for browsing Type and go to search for specific policies Good search results for policy topics, e.g., pets Refine search offered with results Help on search page, not a click away.

53 53 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Metadata ROI: Customer support model Self service Fewer customer calls. Faster, more accurate CSR responses through better information access % service efficiency increase 300K customer service calls per month $6 cost per call Manual processing 100,000 documents 2 pages per document $4 per page $800K $5.4M to $10.8M/yr $186M to $930M/year ($575M) to $169M/year 1-5% increased sales $18.6B sales (04) ($761M) net income (04) Source: Proforma based on Hoovers data.

54 54 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Metadata ROI: Compliance Avoiding penalties for breaching regulations SOX: up to 5 years in jail SOX: up to $5M Following required procedures Loss of company $100B revenue (00) Loss of partner companies Arthur Andersen $100B Source: Proforma based on Hoovers data.

55 55 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Knowledge workers spend up to 2.5 hours each day looking for information … … But find what they are looking for only 40% of the time. Kit Sims Taylor

56 56 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information High cost of not finding information The amount of time wasted in futile searching for vital information is enormous, leading to staggering costs … Sue Feldman, bnb nbnbn High cost of poor classification Poor classification costs a 10,000 user organization $10M each yearabout $1,000 per employee. Jakob Nielsen, useit.com But better search itself is a weak ROI

57 57 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information 26% 9% Knowledge workers spend more time re-creating existing content than creating new content Kit Sims Taylor

58 58 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Metadata ROI: Productivity Decreased cost to market Decreased development cost Increased R&D productivity Reduced time for sales & marketing 1-5% decrease in drug development cost $800M/drug 5-10% increase in R&D productivity 13% of revenue $39B in sales (04) 10-20% decrease in time for sales & marketing 13% of revenue Enterprise document management system cost $10M $8M to $16M/drug $254M to $507M/year $254M to $507M/year Source: Proforma based on Hoovers data.

59 59 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Metadata ROI: Executive Mandate There is no ROI out of the box Just someone with a vision …and the budget to make it happen. Whats really needed? Demos and proofs of value. So that a stronger cost benefit argument can be made for continuing the work

60 60 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Productivity, loyalty, and revenue have provided the ROI

61 61 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Intranet has provided the best ROI Intranet Web/online customer sales Web dev infrastructure Middleware to link Web to ERP e- billing/payment systems Web/online business sales Wireless Web access Extranet/supply chain e-marketplace/ portal None

62 62 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Agenda 9:00Who are we? 9:10What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30Break 10:45What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45Any more questions? 12:00Adjourn ?

63 63 Taxonomy Strategies LLC The business of organized information Agenda 9:00Who are we? 9:10What are taxonomies & metadata? 9:30What kinds of taxonomies are there, and what do I need? 9:40How do I get a good taxonomy? 10:05How do I associate the taxonomy with content? 10:30Break 10:45What do taxonomies and metadata have to do with search? 11:15How can I sell my management on a taxonomy project? 11:45Any more questions? 12:00Adjourn

64 Strategies LLCTaxonomy May 16, 2005Copyright 2005 Taxonomy Strategies LLC. All rights reserved. Contact Info Ron Daniel Joseph Busch


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