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Ch.12 – World War I U.S. Involvement. Zimmerman Note Zimmerman Note –German foreign secretary to German ambassador in Mexico –Promises New Mexico, Texas.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch.12 – World War I U.S. Involvement. Zimmerman Note Zimmerman Note –German foreign secretary to German ambassador in Mexico –Promises New Mexico, Texas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch.12 – World War I U.S. Involvement

2 Zimmerman Note Zimmerman Note –German foreign secretary to German ambassador in Mexico –Promises New Mexico, Texas and Arizona –March 1, 1917 – Wilson makes note public –Anti-German sentiment strong in America The Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution –Russians overthrew the czar (autocrat) Sinking of U.S. Ships – City of Memphis, Illinois, and Vigilancia Sinking of U.S. Ships – City of Memphis, Illinois, and Vigilancia

3 U.S. Goes to War Wilson torn between keeping peace or war Wilson torn between keeping peace or war Revolution in Russia makes them suitable ally Revolution in Russia makes them suitable ally April 6, 1917 – Congress votes to go to war April 6, 1917 – Congress votes to go to war 1918 – more than a million U.S. troops in Europe 1918 – more than a million U.S. troops in Europe Turning Point of the War Turning Point of the War –With the help of Gen. Pershing and his troops the Germans are stopped 50 miles from Paris 1 month – more ammo used than in 4 years of Civil War 1 month – more ammo used than in 4 years of Civil War

4 U.S. Goes to War Selective Service Act Selective Service Act –May 1917: ages 21-30, later –24 million volunteer for draft, 3 million drafted –Join the American Expeditionary Forces Training for War Training for War –Learned how to use a bayonet, a rifle, dig a trench, put on a gas mask, and throw a grenade –Needed several months for training but, never had the time

5 The Convoy System The Convoy System –Needed a way to transport all merchant and troop ships –Consisted of a group of unarmed ships surrounded by a ring of destroyers, torpedo boats, and other armed naval vessels (equipped w/hydrophones to track subs) –Very successful – U-boats didn’t sink a single troopship traveling to Europe Black Soldiers – only 10% saw action Black Soldiers – only 10% saw action –Most were used for menial labor –369 th Infantry – “Harlem Hell Fighters,” integrated w/French troops, entire 369 th Infantry received the Croix de Guerre U.S. Goes to War

6 The Home Front Organizing Industry Organizing Industry –War Industries Board: regulated supply of raw material to manufacturers –89 million pairs of socks, 19 million blankets, 95 ships in one day –Labor unions refused to strike –Women taking over necessary jobs Financing the War Financing the War –Liberty Bonds raised $20 billion – only covered ¼ of costs –Boy Scouts & Girl Scouts sold them on street corners

7 WWI Propaganda Posters Liberty Bonds & War Savings Stamps

8 The Home Front Conservation Conservation –Price Controls: a system of pricing determined by the government –Rationing: Heatless, meatless, wheatless, & victory gardens –Daylight Savings Time: increased the # of daylight hours for workers and reduced the need for artificial light (fuel conservation)

9 WWI Propaganda Poster displays price controls

10 WWI Propaganda Posters Victory Gardens & Canning Food

11 The Home Front Enforcing Loyalty Enforcing Loyalty –Trading with Enemy Act – censored publications –Sedition Act – no speech disloyal to gov’t., flag, constitution, or armed forces –Espionage Act – punished guilty for helping the enemy, hindering recruitment or inciting revolt Anti-German Sentiment Anti-German Sentiment –Hamburger = Salisbury Steak –German Shepard = Police Dog –German Measles = Liberty Measles

12 Impact on U.S. 116,000 soldiers 116,000 soldiers Wartime production = richest country in the world Wartime production = richest country in the world Return to isolationism Return to isolationism Killed progressivism, big business back in Killed progressivism, big business back in Higher wages, higher inflation Higher wages, higher inflation Blacks still suffering from inequality Blacks still suffering from inequality Women making gains and loses Women making gains and loses –Voting rights –Forced to leave jobs when men returned home (b/c of job shortage)

13 End of War November 7, 1918 November 7, 1918 –Germans ask for armistice November 11 November 11 –Armistice signed –11 th hour, 11 th day, 11 th month 8 million soldiers died 8 million soldiers died Ottoman Empire killed thousands of Armenians (genocide) Ottoman Empire killed thousands of Armenians (genocide) Peace Agreement Peace Agreement Wilson’s 14 Points Wilson’s 14 Points –Creates the League of Nations Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles –Redrawing of map –Germany accepts full responsibility, stripped of colonies, pay reparations, reduced armed forces

14 Ch.12 Review Sussex Pledge Sussex Pledge Versailles Treaty – what did Germany have to do? Versailles Treaty – what did Germany have to do? Allies Allies Fourteen Points Fourteen Points Sedition Sedition League of Nations League of Nations Central Powers Central Powers Alliances – reason why Europe was drawn into the war Alliances – reason why Europe was drawn into the war Armistice Armistice Self-determination Self-determination Liberty Bonds Liberty Bonds Zimmerman Note Zimmerman Note U-boat – hidden & fired w/o warning U-boat – hidden & fired w/o warning Genocide Genocide Reparations Reparations Imperialism Imperialism Selective Service Act Selective Service Act

15 Ch.12 Review Which event sparked World War I? Which event sparked World War I? Describe the first few years of the war. Describe the first few years of the war. What was the purpose of the convoy system? What was the purpose of the convoy system? African Americans role in the war. African Americans role in the war. Types of rationing Types of rationing Events that pushed the U.S. into war Events that pushed the U.S. into war High casualties High casualties War Industries Board fixed prices on certain products (price controls) War Industries Board fixed prices on certain products (price controls) Main economic problem after the war – job shortages Main economic problem after the war – job shortages Turning Point – Pershing’s troops blocked Germans from Paris invasion Turning Point – Pershing’s troops blocked Germans from Paris invasion


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