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AS revision Unit F211. 1. Define organelle 2. What is resolution 3. List 4 differences between a light microscope and an electron microscope 4. List the.

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Presentation on theme: "AS revision Unit F211. 1. Define organelle 2. What is resolution 3. List 4 differences between a light microscope and an electron microscope 4. List the."— Presentation transcript:

1 AS revision Unit F211

2 1. Define organelle 2. What is resolution 3. List 4 differences between a light microscope and an electron microscope 4. List the 3 steps in determining magnification from a scale bar 5. How many micrometres in a millimetre? 6. 22mm = _______ μm 7. List 3 functions of membrane proteins

3 8. What does hydrophilic mean? 9. Distinguish between endocytosis and exocytosis 10. One route for vesicles in a cell is from the ________ to the __________ and then to the plasma membrane 11. What is the key difference between phagocytosis andpinocytosis 12. Distinguish between mitosis and cytokinesis 13. State 3 processes in plants and/or animals that require mitosis

4 14.List the stages of mitosis in order & complete the table: DrawingStage prophase 1. Supercoiling of DNA Key points

5 Complete the shaded boxes…. StructureFunction nucleus Site of protein synthesis Stores hydrolyzing [digestive] enzymes. Golgi apparatus Transport & packing into vesicles of synthesised proteins mitochondrion

6 Complete the shaded boxes…. DiffusionOsmosisActive transport With the concentration gradient Transports water Requires a membrane

7 Complete the shaded boxes…. FeatureProkaryotic cellEukaryotic cell DNA Enclosed in an envelope or not? DNANaked DNACircular or linear? mitochondriaPresent or absent? Size of ribosomes

8 Self quiz 1 1. c 2. b 3. d 4. a 5. a 6. c 7. a 8. d 9. a 10. c 11. b 12. d 13. d 14. a 15. a 16. d 17. b 18. a 19. c 20. d 21. c 22. a 23. c 24. b 25. a

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10 Which is the odd one out? A. metaphase B. anaphase C. prophase D. interphase E. telophase WHY?

11 Which is the odd one out? A. early anaphase B. cytokinesis C. early prophase D. late prophase E. telophase WHY?

12 Which is the odd one out? A. mitochondria B. Golgi apparatus C. centrioles D. nucleus E. nucleolus WHY?

13 A B C D E F G H I

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15 Sketch and label the position of the mesophyll and vascular tissues. Do not draw individual cells.

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33 Study the following passage: It has been possible to develop artificial urinary bladders by growing the different types of differentiated cells that make up a bladder in tissue culture. When large populations of the different cell types have been produced, they are placed on a framework of collagen fibres and develop into a functioning bladder, which can be connected in place of a damaged or defective bladder. An artificial heart cannot be produced in this way because heart muscle cells rarely, if ever, divide, either in the heart itself or in tissue culture. Much research is taking place so that stem cells can be successfully transferred from culture into a damaged heart. In animal models, the stem cells have been shown to divide and differentiate into new heart muscle cells and new blood vessels. Stem cells for this procedure have been obtained from bone marrow or from an embryo.

34 Study the following passage: It has been possible to develop artificial urinary bladders by growing the different types of differentiated cells that make up a bladder in tissue culture. When large populations of the different cell types have been produced, they are placed on a framework of collagen fibres and develop into a functioning bladder, which can be connected in place of a damaged or defective bladder. An artificial heart cannot be produced in this way because heart muscle cells rarely, if ever, divide, either in the heart itself or in tissue culture. Much research is taking place so that stem cells can be successfully transferred from culture into a damaged heart. In animal models, the stem cells have been shown to divide and differentiate into new heart muscle cells and new blood vessels. Stem cells for this procedure have been obtained from bone marrow or from an embryo. a) How does the passage show that the urinary bladder is an organ? [1]

35 Study the following passage: It has been possible to develop artificial urinary bladders by growing the different types of differentiated cells that make up a bladder in tissue culture. When large populations of the different cell types have been produced, they are placed on a framework of collagen fibres and develop into a functioning bladder, which can be connected in place of a damaged or defective bladder. An artificial heart cannot be produced in this way because heart muscle cells rarely, if ever, divide, either in the heart itself or in tissue culture. Much research is taking place so that stem cells can be successfully transferred from culture into a damaged heart. In animal models, the stem cells have been shown to divide and differentiate into new heart muscle cells and new blood vessels. Stem cells for this procedure have been obtained from bone marrow or from an embryo. b) Explain the difference between a stem cell and a differentiated cell [5]

36 Study the following passage: It has been possible to develop artificial urinary bladders by growing the different types of differentiated cells that make up a bladder in tissue culture. When large populations of the different cell types have been produced, they are placed on a framework of collagen fibres and develop into a functioning bladder, which can be connected in place of a damaged or defective bladder. An artificial heart cannot be produced in this way because heart muscle cells rarely, if ever, divide, either in the heart itself or in tissue culture. Much research is taking place so that stem cells can be successfully transferred from culture into a damaged heart. In animal models, the stem cells have been shown to divide and differentiate into new heart muscle cells and new blood vessels. Stem cells for this procedure have been obtained from bone marrow or from an embryo. c) Name two types of cell that are formed from stem cells in bone marrow [2]

37 Study the following passage: It has been possible to develop artificial urinary bladders by growing the different types of differentiated cells that make up a bladder in tissue culture. When large populations of the different cell types have been produced, they are placed on a framework of collagen fibres and develop into a functioning bladder, which can be connected in place of a damaged or defective bladder. An artificial heart cannot be produced in this way because heart muscle cells rarely, if ever, divide, either in the heart itself or in tissue culture. Much research is taking place so that stem cells can be successfully transferred from culture into a damaged heart. In animal models, the stem cells have been shown to divide and differentiate into new heart muscle cells and new blood vessels. Stem cells for this procedure have been obtained from bone marrow or from an embryo. d) Suggest some problems that must be overcome for stem cell therapy to become an established medical procedure for treating humans [3]

38 Study the following passage: It has been possible to develop artificial urinary bladders by growing the different types of differentiated cells that make up a bladder in tissue culture. When large populations of the different cell types have been produced, they are placed on a framework of collagen fibres and develop into a functioning bladder, which can be connected in place of a damaged or defective bladder. An artificial heart cannot be produced in this way because heart muscle cells rarely, if ever, divide, either in the heart itself or in tissue culture. Much research is taking place so that stem cells can be successfully transferred from culture into a damaged heart. In animal models, the stem cells have been shown to divide and differentiate into new heart muscle cells and new blood vessels. Stem cells for this procedure have been obtained from bone marrow or from an embryo. e) State the name given to cells in a plant body that have a function similar to stem cells in a mammalian body [1]

39 1. A plant cell is 40μm in length. How long is its image when magnified x3000? 2. An animal cell is 60mm long when viewed at x4000. What is the cells actual length? 3. Name, and calculate the actual size of these organelles: x5000 Line measures 25mm x18500 Line measures 56mm

40 Explain, using examples from animals and plants, how cells rely on each other for their survival Explain the meaning of the term division of labour

41 iron four Bohr effect carbonicanhydrase haemoglobinic acid

42 dry reduce waxy water vapour stomata


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