Presentation on theme: "12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/121 Current Trends bioinformatics Covered by this lecture."— Presentation transcript:
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/121 Current Trends bioinformatics Covered by this lecture
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/122 Cycle of optimization in the drug discovery pipeline Source: D.K. Agrafiotis et al. Nature.Rev.Drug.Discov. 1 (2002) 337. Are we literally running in circles ?
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/123 Prodrugs Actually effective substance is the main metabolite of the drug Example: ester cleavage Irreversible inhibitor of cycloxygenase (COX)
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/124 Statins as HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors The prodrug is a lactone whereas its metabolite is effective
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/125 Antiviral Nucleoside Analogs Nucleosides missing the 3‘-OH group cause disruption of the synthesis of a new DNA strain
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/126 Multi level prodrugs Active uptake of -Methyldopa-Phe by the dipeptide transporter -Methylnoreprinephrine is an 2 agonist (false neurotransmitter)
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/127 4D and 5D QSAR 3D QSAR: Information from the 3D structure is used 3D descriptors, pharmacophore models 4D and 5D QSAR: multiple conformations use of multiple docking results for one compound Lit: M. Dobler et al. Helvetica Chim. Acta 86 (2003) 1554
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/128 multiple conformations upon docking (I) The binding pocket of many cytochrome P450 enzymes (esp. CYP3A4 and CYP2D6) is large enough to accomodate the same substrate in different orientations, which leads to different products. The reactivity of a certain spot of the molecule can be estimated by quantum chemical calculations. Lit: M. de Groot et al. J.Med.Chem. 42 (1999) 4062 S.B. Singh et al. J.Med.Chem. 46 (2003) 1330
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/129 multiple conformations upon docking (II) Lit: Park & Harris J.Med.Chem. 46 (2003) 1645 Besides information about the reactivity at a certain spot of the molecule, also the propability of the according binding position in the enzyme is required. Can be obtained from statistical analysis of a large number of docking results, or by molecular dynamics simulations
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1210 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (1) Is it possible to predict the potential suitability of a compound from typical properties of drugs ? approaches: Reckognition of typical properties in data bases that (almost) exclusively contain drugs For example: World Drug Index (WDI) Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry (CMC) MACCS-II Drug Report (MDDR)
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1211 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (2) Previous data base analyses: 1997 Christopher Lipinski‘s rule of 5 (Pfizer) Orally administered drugs typically have molecular weight < 500 ClogP < 5 less than 5 hydrogen-bond donors (O-H, N-H) less than 10 hydrogen-bond acceptors (N, O, S) 2000 Tudor Oprea (AstraZeneca) Typical drugs (70% of all) have less than 3 hydrogen-bond donors between 2 and 9 hydrogen-bond acceptors between 2 and 9 rotatable bonds between 1 and 4 rings Lipinski‘s rule of 5 refers to oral bioavailability but not neccessarily drug-likeness !
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1212 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (3) 1999 Ghose, Viswanadhan & Wendoloski Analysis of the Comphrensive Medicinal Chemistry database: 80% of all drugs have 160 < molecular weight < 480 –0.4 < logP < 5.6 20 < number of atoms < 70 40 < molar refractivity < 130 The preferred range covering 50% of all drugs shows 230 < molecular weight < 390 1.3 < logP < 4.1 30 < number of atoms < 55 70 < molar refractivity < 110 Lit: A. Ghose et al. J.Comb.Chem. 1 (1999) 55-68.
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1213 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (4) Even tighter restrictions required to avoid adverse effects? Molecular weight < 400 and ClogP < 4 (GSK 4/400 rule) Lit: M.M. Hann „Molecular Obesity, Potency and Other Addictions in Drug Discovery“ Med.Chem.Commun. 2 (2011) 349-355. higher lower logP, MW potency membrane passage toxicological issues accumulation promiscuity solubility bioavailability CNS penetration Find smallest crucial parts of molecules → fragments „Start slim, stay fit“ Michael M. Hann So far the driving force in drug design
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1214 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (5) The most common (ring) fragments of drugs Lit: G.W.Bemis & M.M.Murcko, J.Med.Chem. 39 (1996) 2887
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1215 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (6) Rare appearance of certain fragment or side chain does not necessarily mean that it is unsuitable or negligible. This fragment can rather be difficult to synthesize, or be newly introduced, or possess unsuitable properties
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1216 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (7) Examples of groups that possess wellknown unsuitable properties Such groups should not be present in clinical drugs, but may be important during synthesis Lit: D.R.Flower, J.Mol.Graph.Model. 16 (1998) 239. M.Hann et al. J.Chem.Inf.Comput.Sci. 39 (1999) 897.
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1217 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (8) Further approach: Comparison of compounds in a data base containing solely drugs (World Drug Index) to substances from a data base that predominately consists of non- pharmaceutical compounds (Available Chemical Directory).
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1218 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (9) Classification of compounds according to their atom types using a neural net Lit: J. Sadowski & H. Kubinyi J.Med.Chem. 41 (1998) 3325. Increasing drug-likeness Training set 10000 compounds Test set 207747 compounds
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1219 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (10) Compounds for which a high drug-likeness score was predicted: ACD WDI Lit: J. Sadowski & H. Kubinyi J.Med.Chem. 41 (1998) 3325. false positives
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1220 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (11) Classification of compounds using their ISIS fingerprint (set of 73 descriptors which indicate the presence of structural and topological features, and encode chemical properties) Allow comparison of the compounds by their similarity using the Tanimoto index. Lit: Ajay et al. J.Med.Chem. 41 (1998) 3314. These 73 binary descriptors were used as input layer of a neural net, which was trained with compounds from drug data bases and non-drugs from the ACD. result: about 80% of all compounds were classified correct.
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1221 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (12) Classification of compounds according to atom types that represent so-called pharmacophoric points: Among these functional groups are preselection: A compound is potentially drug-like, if it contains at least one ring and between 2 and 7 of such functional groups. Lit: J.Muegge et al. J.Med.Chem. 44 (2001) 1841. The atoms of the molecule are classified according to the affiliation to one of these pharamacophoric points and used as input layer of a neural net. Here again compounds of the ACD were compared to drug data bases.
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1222 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (13) Classification of compounds according to topological descriptors using a neural net. Lit: M.Murcia-Soler et al. J.Chem.Inf.Comput.Sci. 43 (2003) 1688. Increasing drug-likeness 680 compounds of the Merck Index, of which about 76 % were classified correct.
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1223 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (14) Classification of compounds using a decision tree. Used were atom types that represent certain functional groups. Lit: M.Wagner et al. J.Chem.Inf.Comput.Sci. 40 (2001) 280. Advantages of a decision tree compared to a neural net: The criteria for classification at each branching point can be traced easily and a corresponding error can be assigned. results: ¾ of all compounds can be assigned based on the presence of 6 chemical groups. Non-drugs typically contain not enough of these functional groups
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1224 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (15) Preliminary resume: Neither the presence of atom types, nor that of (sub-) structure fragments or functional groups, allows to classify a substance precisely as drug-like (> 95% accuracy) Seemingly an (even) larger variety of descriptors, e.g. those that account for electronic properties are required. → use of quantum chemical descriptors? Lit: N.Schneider et al. J.Chem.Inf.Model. 48 (2008) 613. M.C.Hutter Curr.Med.Chem. 16 (2009) 189.
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1225 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (16) Principal component analysis (PCA) of 26 descriptors of compounds from the Maybridge data base yielded the numerical value of the 3rd principal component as most significant separation criteria. Lit: M.Brüstle et al. J.Med.Chem. 45 (2002) 3345
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1226 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (17) Classification of compounds based on chemical intuition Lit: Y.Takaoka et al. J.Chem.Inf.Comput.Sci. 43 (2003) 1269 3980 compounds were classified by 5 chemists according to their drug-likeness and the according synthesic efford
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1227 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (18) try yourselves ! Classify these compouds into drug or non-drug Compare your results to that of the property prediction module at http://www.organic-chemistry.org/prog/peo/index.html
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1228 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (19) Back to the basics: So far it has been only assumed that there is an unequal feature distribution between drugs and non-drugs. How can we statistically prove this assumption ? Idea: Certain combinations of atom types are found with a different frequency among drugs compared to non-drugs 1-1 Interaction: the atom itself 1-2 Interaction: bond between two atoms 1 and 2 1-3 Interaction: angle between atoms 1 and 3 1-4 Interaction: dihedral angle between atoms 1 and 4 1-5 Interaction: between atoms 1 and 5
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1229 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (20) What atom types and how many should be used ? Atom types should account for the chemical diversity Thus, elements only (C, N, O,..) are not enough Here, atom types from the MM+ force field are used (total of 47)
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1230 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (21) When is an atom pair combination i-j statistically overrepresented ? → If its frequency q ij is higher than that by chance (= relative probability S‘) For better handling we use the logarithmic value = log odds score where p i is the individual frequency of an atom of type i >0 overrepresented <0 underrepresented
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1231 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (22) Distribution of atom types (1-1 interaction) alone is not sufficient
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1232 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (23) Visualized using a difference matrix Overrepresented in drugs Overrepresented in non-drugs Similar to amino acid exchange matrix! C N O F,Cl,Br,I S B,Si,P
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1233 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (24) But how to calculated the drug-likeliness from the atom type distribution ? Simply add up corresponding matrix entries and divide by the number of occuring atom pairs in the molecule: Drug-likeliness score L >0 drug-like <0 non-drug-like Timing: Less than 5 minutes computing the difference matrices and scores for 4083 compounds
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1234 Drug / Non-Drug Separation (25) Degree of coverage 77.4% at 0.00 Lit: M.C.Hutter J.Chem.Inf.Model. 47 (2007) 186-194.
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1235 Cheminformatics or Chemoinformatics ? Data source: http://www.molinspiration.com http://www.google.de
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1236 personalized medicine Variable metabolic content and predisposition (Genotyping) Avoiding rare, complicated adverse effects (in part already used in the clinic) Will the necessary financial effort of screening and of clinical studies limit the genetic pool to inhibitants of wealthy nations ? Counter example: The deCode genetics program run by deCode genetics where many inhabitants of Iceland participate. Here, a database is being set up to find markers for the most common diseases. http://www.decodegenetics.com/
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1237 Lifestyle vs. Disease (I) The top selling drugs during the last couple of years (selection): Simvastatin (Zocor™)HMG-CoA reductase Atorvastatin (Lipitor™)HMG-CoA reductase Omeprazole (Losec™)proton pump (stomach) Amlodipin (Norvasc™)calcium channel (hypertension) Erythropoiethin (Epo™)(stimulates erythocyte formation) Loratadine (Claritin™)GPCR (antiallergic) Celecoxib (Celebrex™)COX-2 inhibitor (anti-inflammatory) Lansoprazol (Takepron™)proton pump Fluoxetine (Prozac™)GPCR (antidepressive) Losartan (Coozar™)GPCR (hypertension) Sildenafil (Viagra™)phoshodiesterase-5 inhibitor
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1238 Lifestyle vs. Disease (II) Most „blockbuster“ drugs were not predicted by analysts of the marketing departements: indication Tamoxifenbreast cancer Captoprilhypertension Cimetidinegastric ulcers [Geschwulstbildung im Magen] Fluoxetine (Prozac™)depression Atorvastatin (Lipitor™)hyperlipidaemia, obesity Lit: J.Knowles & G.Gromo Nat.Rev.Drug.Discov. 2 (2003) 63.
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1241 Lifestyle vs. Disease (V) How are innovative drugs defined ? improved mode of action (selectivity) improved ADMET profile Improved administration (e.g. oral instead of intravenous) pro-drugs new targets
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1242 Lifestyle vs. Disease (VI) The great challenges Virostatics Antibiotics (Zn- -lactamases, malaria) Anticancer drugs Antidementia/Alzheimer Diabetes type 2 civilization diseases (obesity, ADHD)?
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1243 Resume The available knowledge on the human genome and the present SNPs in it allow two approaches: 1. Finding new targets (either on the genome, the mRNA, or the protein level) 2. pharmacogenomic methods will lead to personalized medicine (which drug and at what dosage), esp. for long term application of certain drugs (hypertension, analgesics, anti-psychotics) and those that possess a narrow therapeutic band width (cardiotonics, antineoplastics)
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1244 Doping (I) Illicit use of substances to achieve an increase in performance (in sport) → A definition is difficult, since there must be a causative link between cause and action, similar to drugs According substances are put together in doping lists by national and international sport committees (e.g. international olympic committee IOC) based on medical knowledge.
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1245 Doping list (I) Illicit substance groups antiestrogenic compounds aromatase inhibitors tamoxifen, etc. hormons and related drugs erythropoietin (EPO): increased production of red blood cells insulin and insulin-like growth factors anabolic steroids (anabolics) lead to an increased building up of muscles naturally in the body occurring steroids such as testosterone, as well as totally artificial steroids e.g. tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) Partly not even allowed for fattening of porks! → substanced that increase the oxygen transport capacity of the blood
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1246 Doping list (II) Banned substance groups Stimulants increase the short term motivation amphetamines (cardiovasuclar and addiction risks) caffeine (until 2004 with a limit), due to newer results no limits any more narcotics and -blocker show a calming down effect (pain reducing) (boxing, archery [Sportschießen])
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1247 Doping list (III) Mascing substances diuretica (increased elimination, reduction of body weight) inhibitors of the steroid- -reductase (finasterid) plasmaexpanders (albumin, dextran) reduced drug concentration in the serum cannaboids hashish, marihuana glucocorticoides (heart and circulation function)
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1248 Doping list (IV) Substances with limits in certain sports alcohol (billard, tighter limits e.g. in racing) -blocker (sports that require increased concentration) gene doping modification on the genetic level to increase performance (nuclear receptors, mRNA, gene silencing) feasibility, analytical proof?
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1249 Doping (V) Doping lists are not comprehensive, which means that all similar compounds and those with a similar effect are included implicitly. → possibly not formulated precise enough for legal actions Doping tests Mainly urine samples, blood samples less frequent problems: limits for metabolites of naturally occuring compounds, e.g. of testosterone and hematocrite traceability of certain compounds (EPO) new and formerly unknown compounds (e.g. THG)
12th lectureModern Methods in Drug Discovery WS11/1250 Doping (VI) Why doping tests ? fairness, (self-)protection of the athletes Risks of doping anabolic steroids: liver damage stimulants: addiction, lethal exhaustion common adverse effects Many drugs that are included in doping lists can administered with exception permits. E.g. steroidal anti-inflammatories, anti-asthmatics