12 Schachter and SingerJames was wrong - there are not enough physiological statesCannon Bard wrong - ANS arousal and emotional states are linked
13 Schachter and Singer Testing the theory that a stimulus causes the physiological arousal(the charging bull)and then that …..We look around for cues to tell us what the emotion is?
14 Schachter and Singer What they did? The participants The cognitive labelling theory of emotionThe participants184 male students of psychology(American)rewarded by two extra points on their final exam for every hour they took part
15 Schachter and Singer Procedure Ps were told that the experiment was testing how a vitamin compound called SUPROXIN affects visionThat they were to be injected with this VITAMIN but that any who objected could withdraw.. Some did
16 Schachter and Singer All told they were receiving a SUPROXIN injection Group 1 - given an injection of adrenaline - which causes increased heart rate, blood pressure and flushingGroup 2 given a placebo - an injection of saline which causes no effect
17 Schachter and Singer ADRENALINE group divided into three groups INFORMED - told of the side effects of adrenalineIGNORANT - told nothingMISINFORMED - told they might experience head ache, numbness in their feet
18 Schachter and Singer Placebo group told nothing So the scene is set for the physiological arousal of some participants
19 Schachter and SingerHow did Schachter and Singer produce the emotional state?In order to create the emotional cues the participants were placed into two further groupsAnother IVEuphoria or Anger condition
21 Schachter and SingerEach participant taken and introduced to another participant (a stooge)Euphoria - the stooge engaged in manic activities aimed to create a sense of euphoria - threw balls at waste paper basket, flew paper planes, twirled a hula hoop and other such hilarious games
22 Schachter and SingerEach participant taken and introduced to another participant (a stooge)Anger - both participant and stooge given long questionnaireVERY personal and insulting questions - the stooge ‘pretended’ to get VERY angryFinally - ripped up his questionnaire and stamped out
23 Schachter and SingerNOTEPs in the misinformed condition were only exposed to the euphoric stooge -S & S thought this would be enough to evaluate their ‘state’
24 Schachter and Singer SUMMARY of CONDITIONS informed ignorant misinformedplacebo E/Aadrenalin E/A E/A E
29 Schachter and Singer THE RESULTS 2 ways of measuring the emotional states?1st DVPs behaviour observed through a one way mirror - two experimenters recorded how the Ps behaved in response - did they join in, or ignore - (Activity index)
30 Schachter and Singer THE RESULTS 2 ways of measuring the emotional states?2nd DVSelf report scales - Ps told that mood could affect vision, asked to self report ‘emotions’
31 Schachter and Singer THE RESULT 2nd DV critical questions - How irritated or angry do you feel nowHow good or happy are you at presentmeasured on a FIVE point scale0 = not at all angry4 = I feel extremely angry
32 Schachter and Singer THE RESULTS also asked Did you feel any palpitations, own heart beatthe misinformed groupDid you feel any numbness(also rated on 5 point scale)
33 Schachter and Singer THE DEBRIEFING Participants were told the true purpose of the experimentasked if they had any suspicions about the experimental procedures
34 Schachter and Singer RESULTS Ps in the ADRENALIN condition showed more sympathetic arousal than those in the placebo conditionPs in the ignorant or misinformed groups rated their euphoria higher than in the informed condition
35 Schachter and Singer RESULTS Ps in the ignorant or misinformed groups rated their euphoria higher than in the informed conditionsupports the hypothesis as they had no other explanation for their physiological response (to the adrenalin )
36 Schachter and Singer RESULTS Misinformed behaved more euphorically than did the ignorantIgnorant behaved more euphorically than the informedmis ig inf
37 Schachter and Singer RESULTS ANGER - there was less difference between the groupsbut they might have been reluctant to show anger as they may have feared losing their exam points!
38 Schachter and Singer RESULTS the results of the placebo group were ambiguous
39 Schachter and Singer CONCLUSION people label their emotional state according to available cognitionsIf there is NO physiological arousal, cognitive cues to emotion have no effect
40 Schachter and Singer SUMMARY Schachter and Singer conclude that First we feel the physiological stateThen we look around for a clue to tell us what we are feeling.
41 EVALUATION & Criticism Another REDUCTIONIST explanation for emotionBUTYou should read up theDutton and Aron studyFalling in love on a suspension bridge
42 Schachter and SingerETHICS?How can this be criticised?
43 Schachter and Singer METHODOLOGY? LAB Experiment What are the disadvantages?What are the advantages?
44 Schachter and Singer How many groups? What were the IVs? How were the DVs measured?
45 Schachter and Singer This experiment has never been replicated The results may not be reliableTHE END