Presentation on theme: "AS level Psychology The Core studies. Cognitive, Social and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State Stanley Schachter and Jerome E. Singer (1962)"— Presentation transcript:
AS level Psychology The Core studies
Cognitive, Social and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State Stanley Schachter and Jerome E. Singer (1962)
Schachter and Singer (1962) n The Question... n How do we recognise the emotions we feel? n Cognitive labelling of emotional states
Some background…. n If we see a bull charging towards us n Do we run because we are scared n or n Are we scared because we run?
Some background…. n How do we know which emotion we are feeling? n Write down FIVE different emotions
The James-Lange theory n That emotions are read out of the physiological signs n heart rate, blood pressure, sweat, breathing. etc n but that would mean a different physiological state for each emotion
The Cannon-Bard theory n We see the charging bull n and then n (a) Physiological changes occur n (b) We cognitively recognise fear u independent processes with no direct link between them u but with a common trigger
Schachter and Singer n James was wrong - there are not enough physiological states n Cannon Bard wrong - ANS arousal and emotional states are linked
Schachter and Singer n Testing the theory that n a stimulus causes the physiological arousal n (the charging bull) n and then that ….. n We look around for cues to tell us what the emotion is?
Schachter and Singer n What they did? n The cognitive labelling theory of emotion n The participants n 184 male students of psychology n (American) n rewarded by two extra points on their final exam for every hour they took part
Schachter and Singer n Procedure n Ps were told that the experiment was testing how a vitamin compound called SUPROXIN affects vision n That they were to be injected with this VITAMIN but that any who objected could withdraw.. Some did
Schachter and Singer n All told they were receiving a SUPROXIN injection n Group 1 - given an injection of adrenaline - which causes increased heart rate, blood pressure and flushing n Group 2 given a placebo - an injection of saline which causes no effect
Schachter and Singer n ADRENALINE group divided into three groups n INFORMED - told of the side effects of adrenaline n IGNORANT - told nothing n MISINFORMED - told they might experience head ache, numbness in their feet
Schachter and Singer n Placebo group told nothing n So the scene is set for the physiological arousal of some participants n
Schachter and Singer n How did Schachter and Singer produce the emotional state? n In order to create the emotional cues the participants were placed into two further groups n Another IV n Euphoria or Anger condition
Schachter and Singer n Each participant taken and introduced to another participant (a stooge) n Euphoria - the stooge engaged in manic activities aimed to create a sense of euphoria - threw balls at waste paper basket, flew paper planes, twirled a hula hoop and other such hilarious games
Schachter and Singer n Each participant taken and introduced to another participant (a stooge) n Anger - both participant and stooge given long questionnaire n VERY personal and insulting questions - the stooge pretended to get VERY angry n Finally - ripped up his questionnaire and stamped out
Schachter and Singer n NOTE n Ps in the misinformed condition were only exposed to the euphoric stooge - n S & S thought this would be enough to evaluate their state
Schachter and Singer n SUMMARY of CONDITIONS informedignorantmisinformedinformedignorantmisinformed n placebo E/A n adrenalin E/AE/AE
Schachter and Singer n THE RESULTS n 2 ways of measuring the emotional states? n 1st DV n Ps behaviour observed through a one way mirror - two experimenters recorded how the Ps behaved in response - did they join in, or ignore - (Activity index)
Schachter and Singer n THE RESULTS n 2 ways of measuring the emotional states? n 2nd DV n Self report scales - Ps told that mood could affect vision, asked to self report emotions
Schachter and Singer n THE RESULT n 2nd DV n critical questions - n How irritated or angry do you feel now n How good or happy are you at present n measured on a FIVE point scale n 0 = not at all angry n 4 = I feel extremely angry
Schachter and Singer n THE RESULTS n also asked n Did you feel any palpitations, own heart beat n the misinformed group n Did you feel any numbness n (also rated on 5 point scale)
Schachter and Singer n THE DEBRIEFING n Participants were told the true purpose of the experiment n asked if they had any suspicions about the experimental procedures
Schachter and Singer n RESULTS n Ps in the ADRENALIN condition showed more sympathetic arousal than those in the placebo condition n Ps in the ignorant or misinformed groups rated their euphoria higher than in the informed condition
Schachter and Singer n RESULTS n Ps in the ignorant or misinformed groups rated their euphoria higher than in the informed condition n supports the hypothesis as they had no other explanation for their physiological response (to the adrenalin )
Schachter and Singer n RESULTS n Misinformed behaved more euphorically than did the ignorant n Ignorant behaved more euphorically than the informed u mis ig inf n
Schachter and Singer n RESULTS n ANGER - there was less difference between the groups n but they might have been reluctant to show anger as they may have feared losing their exam points!
Schachter and Singer n RESULTS n the results of the placebo group were ambiguous
Schachter and Singer n CONCLUSION n people label their emotional state according to available cognitions n If there is NO physiological arousal, cognitive cues to emotion have no effect
Schachter and Singer n SUMMARY n Schachter and Singer conclude that n First we feel the physiological state n Then we look around for a clue to tell us what we are feeling.
EVALUATION & Criticism n Another REDUCTIONIST explanation for emotion n BUT n You should read up the n Dutton and Aron study n Falling in love on a suspension bridge
Schachter and Singer n ETHICS? n How can this be criticised?
Schachter and Singer n METHODOLOGY? n LAB Experiment n What are the disadvantages? n What are the advantages?
Schachter and Singer n How many groups? n What were the IVs? n How were the DVs measured?
Schachter and Singer n This experiment has never been replicated n The results may not be reliable THE END THE END