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12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 1 Compositional Relationships With the Surface and Crust The exosphere and related SERENA particle experiments.

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Presentation on theme: "12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 1 Compositional Relationships With the Surface and Crust The exosphere and related SERENA particle experiments."— Presentation transcript:

1 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 1 Compositional Relationships With the Surface and Crust The exosphere and related SERENA particle experiments

2 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 2 Ann L. Sprague Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ, USA With many, many collaborators over 2 decades: Exosphere studies-groundbased: Hunten, Hill, Kozlowski, Grosse, Wells, Domingue, Fink, Schneider, Killen, Potter, Morgan, Mendillo, Wilson, Baumgardner Exosphere studies-MESSENGER: MASCS--McClintock, Bradley, Vervak, Killen, Izenberg, Holsclaw, Kochte, Lankton, Mouawad FIPS--Raines, Gloeckler, Kabin, Krimigis, Andrews, Slavin, Koehn And the MESSENGER AMDG TEAM

3 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 3 What might we see with the neutral and ionised particle analyser SERENA (IFSI Italy) ? FIPS am I allowed to say WOW! exceeds expectations? Ions sputtered from surface and ionized from neutrals in atmosphere Neutrals in atmosphere Solar Wind ions—material delivered to surface which is implanted into surface

4 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 4 Pickup Ion Composition From Zurbuchen et al. 2008, EGU, Vienna, Austria

5 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 5 Height (Mer R) g (cm/sec 2 )HNaSKCaFe Geopotential Scale Heights (km) assumed temperature 1000 K

6 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 6 Near-surface measurements of Na and K

7 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 7 Credit: NASA/Joh ns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory /Carnegie Institution of Washington

8 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 8 MDIS Color Three major units –Smooth plains –Average crustal material –Low albedo / relatively blue crustal material Minor units –Diffuse red material –High albedo / relatively blue crater floor and ray material –High albedo materials on crater floors and central peaks Adapted From Head et al. LPSC 2008

9 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 9 Atmospheric potassium, K (ionization time Na/K = 1.5 at 0.31 AU). Observations show it close to the surface. MASCS will determine if there is an extended component—or maybe Rosemary’s and Drew’s work. K emission Surface Reflection in band continuum Adapted from Potter and Morgan PSS (1997)

10 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 10 a.55N, 27S; b.6E, 354W radar spots B and A b. Same c. Same, also Kuiper-Murasaki craters d. Spots B and A e. Same f. Same g. Caloris Basin h. 65N, 155W 0, 125W 9S, 105W i. 35S, 43-73W Sprague et al. 1998

11 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 11 Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory /Carnegie Institution of Washington looking north

12 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 12 Imaging the sources and full extent of the sodium tail of the planet Mercury Baumgardner, Wilson, Mendillo, GRL, 35, 2008

13 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM m AEOS telescope on Maui, June 8, 2006 Baumgardner et al ~88 W long sub-earth not radar A and B Na + implant and subsequent release? Or….really Na-rich polar regions??

14 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 14 Ion Implantation Subsequent release to exosphere –High energy process Photo sputtering Charged particle sputtering –High energy coma –Low energy process Thermal desorption –Diurnal effect

15 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 15 – Impact distribution of Ca +11 on the surface of Mercury for specific solar wind conditions. Southern hemisphere impact sites dominate. Color bar--the number of parcels impacting per site. Each parcel represents ~10 17 Ca ions. Similar behavior, with more pronounced preference for southern hemisphere impacts is seen for O +6. (Patrick Koehn, 2006)

16 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 16 Observations of Ca High Resolution Spectrograph Keck I Mauna Kea Hawaii Bida et al Killen et al Radiance of emission ~ 2.5 k Ray High radial velocity (-2 km/s) indicates high energy

17 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 17 Strong Diurnal Effect Morning High/Afternoon Low Na K

18 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 18 Adapted from Raymond et al. 1997

19 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 19 Challenges for SERENA ●Sort out the true surface components from the solar implanted components ●Determine the fractional amount of recycling per pristine surface atom ●Observe impacts and measure exogenous components from first sight ●Discover new species and secular variation— eg. impacts, ecliptic variation, comet trails, other dust regions

20 12-14 May, 2008SERENA, Santa Fe, NM 20 This slide left intentionally empty end of presentation


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