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Department of Electronics Advanced Information Storage 12 Atsufumi Hirohata 17:00 11/November/2013 Monday (AEW 105)

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Presentation on theme: "Department of Electronics Advanced Information Storage 12 Atsufumi Hirohata 17:00 11/November/2013 Monday (AEW 105)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Department of Electronics Advanced Information Storage 12 Atsufumi Hirohata 17:00 11/November/2013 Monday (AEW 105)

2 Quick Review over the Last Lecture Flash memory : NOR-type 1 byte high-speed read-out ×Low writing speed ×Difficult to integrate NAND-type High writing speed Ideal for integration ×No 1 byte high-speed read-out ×Flash erase for a unit block ( 1 ~ 10 kbyte ) only ! * NAND-flash writing operation : NAND-flash erasing operation :

3 12 Dynamic Random Access Memory Memory cell Architecture Data storage Read-out Refresh Further integration

4 Flash Memory vs DRAM Comparisons between flash memory and DRAM : * Flash memory Transistor Condenser Transistor Tunnel barrier Floating gate On Electrons are stored at the floating gate. Electron charges are stored in the condenser. Leakage from the condenser. Electrons cannot tunnel through the barriers. Principles Writing operation Data volatility

5 Storage and Working Memories Current major memories for storage and work : *

6 Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) In a computer, data is transferred from a HDD to a Dynamic Random Access Memory : * Data stored in a capacitor.  Electric charge needs to be refreshed.  DRAM requires large power consumption.

7 DRAM Packages DRAM design : * DRAM packages : Dual in-line package (DIP) Single in-line pin package (SIPP) Single in-line memory module (SIMM) 30-pin SIMM 72-pin Dual in-line memory module (DIMM) 168-pin Double data rate (DDR) DIMM 184-pin

8 Memory Cell Development DRAM memory cells : * memories-and-transistors

9 Memory Storage 1 DRAM cell consists of 1 capacitor + 1 switching FET (1C1T) : * Capacitor Floating capacitor 1 V 2 V 0 V OFF “1”-state : 1 V 0 V OFF “0”-state :

10 Memory Read-Out Read-out operation of 1C1T : * 1 V + ΔV = 2 V 2 V = 1 V + ΔV 3.6 V ON “1”-data : 1 V – ΔV = 0 V 0 V = 1 V – ΔV 3.6 V ON “0”-data : ** Word line (3.6 V) Data rewrite

11 Memory Refresh Refresh operation of 1C1T : *

12 DRAM Architecture DRAM architecture :: *

13 Data Access Speed Addressing a cell : * Raw address strobe (RAS) Column address strobe (CAS) Access time 60 ~ 80 ns Cycle time 40 ~ 50 ns Access time 50 ~ 70 ns Cycle time 20 ~ 30 ns Raw 1 Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 3 Data1 Data2Data3 Raw 1 Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 3 Data1 Data2Data3 Col. 4 Page mode enables to address different columns in the same raw. → Fast page mode → Extended data out (EDO) → Synchronous DRAM PC-100 : 100 MHz cycles

14 Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) SDRAM access diagram : *

15 DRAM Trends DRAM follows Moore’s law (160 % / yr.) : * memories-and-transistors

16 DRAM Design Developments Storage node shapes : * memories-and-transistors

17 Fin-Type DRAM Designs Various manufacturers developed different designs : *

18 Cells, Pages and Blocks Typical 10Gbit DRAM with high-k materials : * memories-and-transistors

19 For Higher Recording Density... Conventional DRAM cell : * Next-generation DRAM cell : Word line Bit line Capacitor 1-cell size Word line Bit line Capacitor 1-cell size Word line Bit line Capacitor Source Drain Channel Insulator for gating

20 DRAM Market Market dominated by 3 major manufacturers : *

21 Super Pillar Transistor (SPT) Universal transistor architecture for various memories : * memories-and-transistors

22 Memory Types * Rewritable Read only Read majority (Writable) Volatile Non-volatile Dynamic Static DRAM SRAM MRAM FeRAM PRAM PROM Mask ROM Flash EPROM

23 Major Memories *


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