Presentation on theme: "Cavour and the Italian War of 1859: The Unification of Italy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cavour and the Italian War of 1859: The Unification of Italy
2 Italian UnificationGaribaldi invades Sicily & Italy-Piemontese army under Victor Emmanuel take over from GaribaldiNapoleon I crowns self King of ItalyCharles Albert abdicates in favor of Victor Emmanuel II (1849)Constitutional monarchy proclaimed in Piedmont; in Rome, Republic proclaimed with Mazzini as headCavour becomes Prime Minister in Sardinia-PiedmontKingdom of Italy proclaimed"Young Italy" founded by Mazzini.Italian troops occupy Rome when French abandon city;1871 (July) Rome made Capital of KingdomWar between Austria and Sardinia Piedmont & France gives Sardinia gains LombardyCharles Albert invades Lombardy; Union of Venetia and Piedmont declared, soon Battle of Custozza, Charles Albert defeated
3 Nationalismroots stem from a shared sense of regional and cultural identity,French Revolution and the effects of Napoleon’s conquests caused it to emerge as a force in Europe.also movement towards modernization, as countries attempted to industrialize in order to compete with other nations and tried to modernize their political systems.As an intellectual movement, nationalism emphasized the importance of culture and cultural uniqueness.rejected the universality of the Enlightenment and stated that each country had its own unique values and was suited to its own system of government.thinkers (like German nationalists Herder) urged their countrymen to celebrate their cultural valuesled to a fascination with folk culture and national history.As a political movement, the goal of nationalism was independence: both actual and economic.
4 Two different types of nationalism: Liberal combined w/ideas of the French Revolution, the liberal nationalists stated that no country is better than another, but that each country has its own unique qualities. All nations deserve to be unified and led by people of their own nationality who can provide the nation with a constitution that is rational, reasonable and just, they said.Militaristic associated w/ideas of social Darwinism and Realpolitik, the claim of militaristic nationalism is that one’s nation is better, not just different. Machiavellian politicians who are out for personal power can exploit this form of nationalism.
5 Italian Nationalism Several small and large states in Italy existed Reorganized by Napoleon and the Congress of ViennaThe governments were content with their independencebut governments were distant from their peoplepeople desired a nation that reflected the past glories of Italy and were generally disgusted with their govsRisorgimento= resurgencemovement for Italian national unity and independence, begun 1815.Leading figures in the movement included Cavour, Mazzini, and Garibaldi
6 GIUSEPPE MAZZINI The Heart known as “the spirit” or the heart of Italian Unification,one of the first Italian nationalistsa romanticemphasized Italy’s uniqueness and special role in Europe.saw the expression of natural communities, the basis for popular democracy and international brotherhoodYoung ItalySecret societyEngaged in conspiracies and propagandaSuperceded by Risorgimentonever succeeded.His big chance came in 1848, but, when Austria regained control, Mazzini left.
7 Barriers1848 efforts failed when the Pope denounced the radical movementAustria’s far reaching influence was another barrierOutside assistance would be needed to separate Italy from Austria’s umbrella of controlKing Victor Emmanuel of the Piedmont (Sardinia)Designs on surrounding territoriesPius IXVictor Emmanuel
8 Camillo di Cavour King Victor Emmanuel’s (Savoy) minister Cavour was a Western liberal/Realpolitik practitionerbelieved in progress, tolerance, limited suffrage,Directed an efficient governmentBuilt up the infrastructure (RR, docks)Limited the role of the ChurchCutting down number of holidays, limiting right of church bodies to own real estate, abolishing church courts without consulting the Holy SeeOpened up free tradesaw nationalism as an avenue to modernizationEngineered the unification processEmbraced the toughness of mind and the politics of realityHad no sympathy for revolutionary romantics like Mazziniwas no fan of war but was OK with it to unify Italy under house of Savoyhe took Piedmont in Crimean WarRealized that ousting Austria required the help of FranceSupported France in the Crimean WarWanted to pit French against Austria
9 Napoleon III was agreeable to war against Austria Had traveled Italy and participated in insurrections there in 1831Saw himself as the apostle of modernityItaly was Bonaparte family’s ancestral homeBelieved in idea of “doctrine of nationalities”Consolidation of nations meant progressWould show France that he supported liberal causes (by fighting reactionary Austria)Silence his criticsAn Italian republican Orsini attempted to kill Napoleon with a bomb in 1858this motivated Nap to make up his mind1859 French troops move against Austria
10 Franco-Austrian Agreement Called the Plombieres Agreementb/t Cavour & Louis Napoleonstated that if Piedmont were at war w/Austria then France would back them upCavour wanted Venetia and Lombardybut he never intended to fully unify ItalyNapoleon wanted to weaken Austria, get Nice and Savoy, and get back at the Austrians (for Congress of Vienna)were just looking for a way to start the war when Austria did some stupid things:it imposed military conscription on Venetia and Lombardy (super unpopular),sent a declaration of total disarmament or war to Piedmont –talk about playing right into their hands
11 Napoleon’s Quandary French defeat Austrian resistance But Prussia was mobilizingNervous about French sphere of influenceItaly began to erupt with revolutionary activitylocal governments were overthrownCalls for unification with Piedmont were madeNapoleon is no fan of revolutionPapacy was threatened so French soldiers were sent in to protect popeFrench Catholics resented the loss of the Pope’s temporal powerBlamed Napoleon for this godless warNapoleon III was fighting on both sides of the warNapoleon III made peace with AustriaThis stupefied Cavour
12 Austrian-Sardinian war Napoleon III quits b/c he realizes he is falling into a trap (worried about Piedmont getting too strong)!Piedmont received LombardiAustria kept VenetiaOffered compromise to the Italian unity questionCreated a federal union of existing governments with the Pope in chargeNot what Cavour or Piedmontese or the patriots wantedRevolution continued and drove out rulers of Tuscany, Modena, Parma, RomagnaPiedmont annexed these territories and held a plebiscitesPope excommunicated leadersRomagna had been part of Papal StatesReps from north Italy (except Venetia) met in Turin in 1860 and held first parliament of the new and improved ItalyThis was supported by English and French
13 The Completion of Italian Unity 1860 Italy consists of three partsNorthern PiedmontPapal StatesSouthern States (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies) ruled by Bourbon king in NaplesUnder the House of BourbonGiuseppe Garibaldi from the PiedmontThe Lafayette of Italy (Hero of 2 worlds)Soldier of fortune in Uruguay and the United StatesOrganized “Garabaldi’s Thousand” or “Red Shirts”1, 150 personal followersLed them on armed expedition to southern ItalyCavour closed his eyes to Garibaldi’s bold moveGaribaldi sailed south and attackedThe corrupt and unpopular governments (2 Sicilies) collapseGaribaldi turned north toward RomePotential move against the French in Rome and the Papacy threatened Cavour’s unification efforts
14 The Completion of Italian Unity Cavour anticipated Garibaldi’s move and sent troops southward while carefully avoiding RomeGaribaldi accepts Victor Emmanuel’s leadership and the north and south are joined with seceding Papal statesGaribaldi now thought a monarchy was best solution for unificationRode in open carriage with Victor Emmanuel thru streets of NaplesPlebiscites confirmed willingness to join1861 Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed1866 Venetia was added in return for Italian support of Prussia against Austria1870 Rome was annexed after French troops withdrew during the Franco-Prussian WarItaly was made by apostolate of Mazzini, audacity of Garibaldi and cold policy of CavourThe Heart, the Sword, and the Head
15 Persistent Problems After Unification Claims for an expanded Italy continuedThey want Trentino, Dalmatian islands, Nice, Savoy addedItalia Irredentism-An unredeemed ItalyIrredentism has come to mean a vociferous demand for territory on nationalistic groundsDeep political differences between the Pope and the new nation of Italy continuedOccupation of Rome 1870 (after French left) renewed Pope’s condemnationthey took the Papal states and he remained in Vatican secludedGreat differences between northern and southern Italy continued to existNorth looks upon South as backwardFew within Italy possessed the voteOnly 600 thou out of 20 mil can voteDisenfranchisement fueled revolutionary discontentGradually the revolutionary movement shiftedMarxian socialism, Anarchism, SyndicalismHowever Italy was united and an age old dream of recapturing past glory is closer to being realized