Presentation on theme: "Cavour and the Italian War of 1859: The Unification of Italy."— Presentation transcript:
Cavour and the Italian War of 1859: The Unification of Italy
Italian Unification Napoleon I crowns self King of Italy "Young Italy" founded by Mazzini. Constitutional monarchy proclaimed in Piedmont; in Rome, Republic proclaimed with Mazzini as head Charles Albert invades Lombardy; Union of Venetia and Piedmont declared, soon Battle of Custozza, Charles Albert defeated Charles Albert abdicates in favor of Victor Emmanuel II (1849) Cavour becomes Prime Minister in Sardinia- Piedmont War between Austria and Sardinia Piedmont & France gives Sardinia gains Lombardy Garibaldi invades Sicily & Italy -Piemontese army under Victor Emmanuel take over from Garibaldi Kingdom of Italy proclaimed Italian troops occupy Rome when French abandon city; 1871 (July) Rome made Capital of Kingdom
Nationalism roots stem from a shared sense of regional and cultural identity, French Revolution and the effects of Napoleons conquests caused it to emerge as a force in Europe. also movement towards modernization, as countries attempted to industrialize in order to compete with other nations and tried to modernize their political systems. As an intellectual movement, nationalism emphasized the importance of culture and cultural uniqueness. rejected the universality of the Enlightenment and stated that each country had its own unique values and was suited to its own system of government. thinkers (like German nationalists Herder) urged their countrymen to celebrate their cultural values led to a fascination with folk culture and national history. As a political movement, the goal of nationalism was independence: both actual and economic.
Two different types of nationalism: Liberal –combined w/ideas of the French Revolution, the liberal nationalists stated that no country is better than another, but that each country has its own unique qualities. All nations deserve to be unified and led by people of their own nationality who can provide the nation with a constitution that is rational, reasonable and just, they said. Militaristic – associated w/ideas of social Darwinism and Realpolitik, the claim of militaristic nationalism is that ones nation is better, not just different. Machiavellian politicians who are out for personal power can exploit this form of nationalism.
Italian Nationalism Several small and large states in Italy existed Reorganized by Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna The governments were content with their independence –but governments were distant from their people people desired a nation that reflected the past glories of Italy and were generally disgusted with their govs Risorgimento= resurgence –movement for Italian national unity and independence, begun –Leading figures in the movement included Cavour, Mazzini, and Garibaldi
GIUSEPPE MAZZINI The Heart known as the spirit or the heart of Italian Unification, one of the first Italian nationalists a romantic emphasized Italys uniqueness and special role in Europe. saw the expression of natural communities, the basis for popular democracy and international brotherhood Young Italy –Secret society –Engaged in conspiracies and propaganda –Superceded by Risorgimento never succeeded. His big chance came in 1848, but, when Austria regained control, Mazzini left
Barriers 1848 efforts failed when the Pope denounced the radical movement Austrias far reaching influence was another barrier Outside assistance would be needed to separate Italy from Austrias umbrella of control King Victor Emmanuel of the Piedmont (Sardinia) –Designs on surrounding territories Pius IX Victor Emmanuel
Camillo di Cavour King Victor Emmanuels (Savoy) minister Cavour was a Western liberal/Realpolitik practitioner believed in progress, tolerance, limited suffrage, Directed an efficient government Built up the infrastructure (RR, docks) Limited the role of the Church Cutting down number of holidays, limiting right of church bodies to own real estate, abolishing church courts without consulting the Holy See Opened up free trade saw nationalism as an avenue to modernization Engineered the unification process Embraced the toughness of mind and the politics of reality Had no sympathy for revolutionary romantics like Mazzini was no fan of war but was OK with it to unify Italy under house of Savoy he took Piedmont in Crimean War Realized that ousting Austria required the help of France Supported France in the Crimean War Wanted to pit French against Austria
Napoleon III was agreeable to war against Austria Had traveled Italy and participated in insurrections there in 1831 Saw himself as the apostle of modernity Italy was Bonaparte familys ancestral home Believed in idea of doctrine of nationalities –Consolidation of nations meant progress Would show France that he supported liberal causes (by fighting reactionary Austria) –Silence his critics An Italian republican Orsini attempted to kill Napoleon with a bomb in 1858 this motivated Nap to make up his mind 1859 French troops move against Austria
Franco-Austrian Agreement Called the Plombieres Agreement b/t Cavour & Louis Napoleon stated that if Piedmont were at war w/Austria then France would back them up Cavour wanted Venetia and Lombardy –but he never intended to fully unify Italy Napoleon wanted to weaken Austria, get Nice and Savoy, and get back at the Austrians (for Congress of Vienna) were just looking for a way to start the war when Austria did some stupid things: it imposed military conscription on Venetia and Lombardy (super unpopular), sent a declaration of total disarmament or war to Piedmont – – talk about playing right into their hands
Napoleons Quandary French defeat Austrian resistance But Prussia was mobilizing –Nervous about French sphere of influence Italy began to erupt with revolutionary activity local governments were overthrown Calls for unification with Piedmont were made –Napoleon is no fan of revolution Papacy was threatened so French soldiers were sent in to protect pope –French Catholics resented the loss of the Popes temporal power –Blamed Napoleon for this godless war –Napoleon III was fighting on both sides of the war Napoleon III made peace with Austria This stupefied Cavour
Austrian-Sardinian war Napoleon III quits b/c he realizes he is falling into a trap (worried about Piedmont getting too strong)! Piedmont received Lombardi Austria kept Venetia Offered compromise to the Italian unity question Created a federal union of existing governments with the Pope in charge Not what Cavour or Piedmontese or the patriots wanted Revolution continued and drove out rulers of Tuscany, Modena, Parma, Romagna Piedmont annexed these territories and held a plebiscites Pope excommunicated leaders –Romagna had been part of Papal States Reps from north Italy (except Venetia) met in Turin in 1860 and held first parliament of the new and improved Italy This was supported by English and French
The Completion of Italian Unity 1860 Italy consists of three parts –Northern Piedmont –Papal States –Southern States (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies) ruled by Bourbon king in Naples Under the House of Bourbon Giuseppe Garibaldi from the Piedmont The Lafayette of Italy (Hero of 2 worlds) Soldier of fortune in Uruguay and the United States Organized Garabaldis Thousand or Red Shirts 1, 150 personal followers Led them on armed expedition to southern Italy Cavour closed his eyes to Garibaldis bold move Garibaldi sailed south and attacked The corrupt and unpopular governments (2 Sicilies) collapse Garibaldi turned north toward Rome Potential move against the French in Rome and the Papacy threatened Cavours unification efforts
The Completion of Italian Unity Cavour anticipated Garibaldis move and sent troops southward while carefully avoiding Rome Garibaldi accepts Victor Emmanuels leadership and the north and south are joined with seceding Papal states Garibaldi now thought a monarchy was best solution for unification Rode in open carriage with Victor Emmanuel thru streets of Naples Plebiscites confirmed willingness to join 1861 Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed 1866 Venetia was added in return for Italian support of Prussia against Austria 1870 Rome was annexed after French troops withdrew during the Franco- Prussian War Italy was made by apostolate of Mazzini, audacity of Garibaldi and cold policy of Cavour The Heart, the Sword, and the Head
Persistent Problems After Unification Claims for an expanded Italy continued They want Trentino, Dalmatian islands, Nice, Savoy added Italia Irredentism-An unredeemed Italy –Irredentism has come to mean a vociferous demand for territory on nationalistic grounds Deep political differences between the Pope and the new nation of Italy continued Occupation of Rome 1870 (after French left) renewed Popes condemnation –they took the Papal states and he remained in Vatican secluded –Great differences between northern and southern Italy continued to exist North looks upon South as backward Few within Italy possessed the vote –Only 600 thou out of 20 mil can vote –Disenfranchisement fueled revolutionary discontent –Gradually the revolutionary movement shifted Marxian socialism, Anarchism, Syndicalism However Italy was united and an age old dream of recapturing past glory is closer to being realized