Presentation on theme: "A Group of Investigation calledSocial Conflict and Prevention of Violence and Criminality OBSERVATORIO DE LA CONVIVENCIA, SEGURIDAD Y DERECHOS HUMANOS."— Presentation transcript:
A Group of Investigation calledSocial Conflict and Prevention of Violence and Criminality OBSERVATORIO DE LA CONVIVENCIA, SEGURIDAD Y DERECHOS HUMANOS Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira November 6 th 2008
Permanent Members: Director Guillermo Aníbal Gärtner Tobón - Professor Socilogist-Lawer-Crimenologist Co-Researcher Piedad Navarro González – Professor Computer Science Engineer- Cand. Mg e-Learning Asistant of Research Mónica Muñoz Student of Lic. in Etnoeducation and Communitary Development Julián Mauricio Barragán Student of Administration of Natural Resources Alan Loaiza Student of Visual Arts Nathalia Toro Secretary (part time) Other temporary colaborators in specific projects Biannual Budget US$10.000
Colombia: Continental surface: 1.141.748 km 2 Religion: Catholics 81%, Christians 10% and the rest: 9% Judaism, Islamism and whoever is not identified with any religion Risaralda: 900.000 peopleColombia: 42.091.000 people Pereira: 550.000 people Pereira
Pilot Model of Geographic Information of Crimes crossed by Cultural Maps: Spatial Modeling of Social- environmental Components of Violence and Criminality. Case of Study: Villa Santana Sector of Pereira City (2004 y 2008 in progress)
Kind of research: Historic, Descriptive, Exploratory, On Field and Documental Research Methodology: IAP-Investigation-Action-Participation (Social and Scientific Investigation) Technics: - Direct Observation (Participative and Non-participative) Notes - Etnography: Structured and Non- Structured interviews - Administrated and tabulated surveys - Documental Observation
not only the contractual relationships, but the stable social connections in general, and even the personal balance of the members of a social group, depend on the existence of a normative structure in relation with the conduct, usually accepted like cohesive of moral authority by the members of the community and its effective subordination to these rules. These rules not only regulate, but also they allowed the election of the means to obtain an end, but also his very necessities and wishes are determinated, in part, by them. When this normative controlling structure is disturbed and disorganized the individual conduct is equally disoganized and caotic, the individual is lost in an emptiness of activities without sense. Anomie is precisely that state of disorganization in which the control over the rules of the individual´s behavior is broken. Its extreme limit is the state of pure individualism (correlative to the personality disorder, which is for Durkheim, as it was for Hobbes, the war of everybody against everybody. Coordinated and opposite to the Anomie state is The Perfect Integration which implies two things: the sum of the normative elements that regulate the conduct in community is a consistent system and that the control over the individual is really effective, that is to be obbeyed. Taken form T.Parsons The Structure of the Social Action
The existence of a normative structure which: In the internal: acceptance (moral authority of the rule) In the external manifestation: coherent conduct (subordinated to the rule) Telos or the object of the rule: the satisfaction of basic necessities Basic needs and wishes adjusted in reference to the allowed (the normatively regulated) The Real and Evident in the Everyday: The existence of groups and areas of rules that are felt and/or perceived as illogical inside of the context in wich the majority of the colombian people lives. Some expressions from my people are: (what is that rule good for?, it is just to make things more complicated,….they are just dead words, who is going to follow those rules if rulers don´t even obey them: everyone suits the rules as to their own interests).
The legal juridical. There exist collections and collections of legal rules, all of them unattended and I ask: What had in common those rules of civility, legal rules and moral rules to we disengage of its force? I think this Anomia has an origin within us. If we ask ourselves in which way we have been educated, we will answer: through dogma imposition. And in wich way we have been educated in the social uses?, through the imposition of rules which content or meaning we do not even reach to envision, but they were imposed. And the legal rules, who did it?, The Congress and the Assemblies, although, really, it was the president of the republic because we live in a internal commotion state during a long period; and even if Congress would do it, what kind of control do we have on Congress? What kind of relationship exists or have been existing between the Congress and the voter? None. This is the bad thing of the Representative Democracy. However, those rules did have something in common: that all of them are imposed from outside, without asking us if we like those rules or not, if we think they make any sense or not. In this way they were imposed on us, and it is evident that being reluctant is a characteristic of a worthy person. Why they impose over me things and don´t even explain me the reason of that imposition, why don´t they let me participate in the elaboration or in the discussion of those rules which are governing my conduct and the conduct of everyone who is together with me? CARLOS GAVIRIA DIAZ – Expresident of the Supreme Cort of Colombia. A POSITIVE FOCUS ON THE CONSTITUTION OF 1991
Because we are two countries at the same time: one on the paper and other into the reality. Although we are precursors of the Science in América, we continue looking at the scientists in their medieval state of hermetic sorcerers, while there are few things in the everday life that are not a miracle of science. In everyone of us cohabit, in most arbitrary way, the justice and the impunity; we are fanatic of the legalism but we bring along a very awakenlawer inside the soul, very expert to bend the rules without breaking them, or to breaking them without penalty. We love dogs, we carpet with roses the world, we die of love for the homeland, but we ignore the disappearance of six species of animals every hour, day or night, because of the criminal devastation of the rainforest by ourselves, and we have destroyed, ourselves, without a remedy, one of the biggest rivers of the planet. We feel ashamed of the bad image of our country abroad but we do not think that many times the reality is even worst. We are able to do the most noble acts and the most terrible too, the most sublime poems and horrible killings, of jubilous funerals and death parties. Not because some of us are bad and others good, but because all of us participate of those two extremes when it is necessary – and God forgive us - all of us are capable of doing anything or whatever it takes. May be a deep reflexion would allow us to establish until what point this way of being is based on the fact that we continue,in essence, to be the same excluyent, formalistic and introspective colonial society. A Perspective From Colombian Literature…
In many urban sectors this situations have been consolidated: - Feeling, more or less happy and proud unlaw - To acknoweldge as logical and normal places of nobodies land - To sensor someone who trancense the limits of his own interests - - To assume that everything the people do is motivated on personal individual interest - To see any reality through polarized and simple schemes - To stigmatise and qualify on a superficial manner, people, gruops and geographic and social sectors - To see the responsability of others but not his own - To prase the foreing because of the simple reason of being so - To baw before titles and rethoric rather than a relation with knoweldge itself - Existence of leaders who speaks on behalf of communities, small groups, citizens, workers… - To use lie and deceat to achieve their purposes
A state order based on a constitution: Art. 1st. Colombia is a Social State of Law, organized in a united republic, discentralized with autonomy in its territorial entities, democratic, participative and pluralist, founded on the respect to human dignity, in the work and solidarity of its members and in the prevalence of the general interest. A fractioned country without presence of a state monopoly in the social control: Regions and conglomerates, under control of insurgent forces (from one side) and contrainsurgents (from the other side), caused by the lack of presence and the capability of formal society to meet needs and to keep the exclusivity in use of force as a means of integration and social control. A Formal country A Real country Colombia
In Colombia most citizens know the diferent rules but they relate to them according to the particular environment in which they wish to apply them from a formal perspective : but not because of the general moral value of the lato avoid problems w itself. In Colombia there is a rule to teach Constitution and Democracy as University and high school courses and in every news stand you are able to get paperback versions of the constitution, civil codes and many others as such 318 Articles in the Constitution, an average of 103,5 new laws every year since 1992 to 2008, during this year the Goverment has issued 3.290 decrees and 62 new laws
Simple Flow Chart The context of reference is the construction of the Social State of Law sketched in the Constitution of 1991. In our countries that benefactory state is more an entelequia than a reality. Not even on a national level nor in the state of Risaralda they have any structures and enough monetary resources that allows it to be that ideal protective state. Its wickness when not the lack of social policies are due to the incipient state of statal construction which is seriously affected by the privatization of the public functions wich is translated in the different forms of Clientelism…
Until which point, and how is it possible, by cultural means that just through a rule, the instint could be belitlle, could be supressed, could be controlled? What is the real meaning of feeling, or internalize, or assume a rule?, It is clear what kind of rules are really felt like their own? Is Synnomie a totalitarian pretension and even imposible? Or simply, like everything else in the Universe Anomie and Synnomie are always together like caos and order, love and hate, peace and war? What limits of anomie could be accepted? How is it possible to understand the Anomie inside en marcos of the Glocalization?