Transport in Plants Explain the need for transport systems in multicellular plants in terms of size and surface area:volume ratio; Describe, with the aid.
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Transport in Plants Objectives: * Explain the need for transport systems in multicellular plants in terms of size and surface area:volume ratio; **Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the distribution of xylem and phloem tissue in roots, stems and leaves of dicotyledonous plants; *** Relate, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the structure and function of xylem vessels, sieve tube elements and companion cells;
Transport in Plants Plants need a transport system so that cells deep within the plants tissues can receive the nutrients they need for cell processes The problem in plants is that roots can obtain water, but not sugar, and leaves can produce sugar, but cant get water from the air
What substances need to be moved? The transport system in plants is called vascular tissue Xylem tissue transports water and soluble minerals Phloem tissue transports sugars and amino acids
The Vascular Tissues Xylem and phloem are found together in vascular bundles, that sometimes contain other tissues that support and strengthen them
Root vs. stem vs. leaf The vascular bundle differs depending on if it is a root or stem
Root The vascular bundle is found in the centre There is a large central core of xylem- often in an x-shape This arrangement provides strength to withstand the pulling forces to which roots are exposed Around the vascular bundle are cells called the endodermis which help to get water into the xylem vessels Just inside the endodermis is the periycle which contains meristem cells that can divide (for growth)
Stem The vascular bundles are found near the outer edge of the stem The xylem is found towards the inside of each vascular bundle, the phloem is found towards the outside In between the xylem and phloem is a layer of cambium Cambium is a layer of meristem cells that divide to make new xylem and phloem
Leaf The vascular bundles (xylem and phloem) form the midrib and veins of the leaf A dicotyledon leaf has a branching network of veins that get smaller as they branch away from the midrib Within each vein, the xylem can be seen on top of the phloem
Phloem Xylem Stem
A = Xylem B = Phloem C/D = Upper/Lower epidermis Leaf
Objectives: *describe the structure of xylem vessel elements and be able to recognise these using the light microscope; **relate the structure of xylem vessel elements to their functions; Xylem
Structure of Xylem Used to transport water and minerals from roots to leaves Consists of tubes for water, fibres for support and living parenchyma cells Draw and make annotated labelling from next slide
Xylem tissue is composed of dead cells joined together to form long empty tubes. Different kinds of cells form wide and narrow tubes, and the end cells walls are either full of holes, or are absent completely. Before death the cells form thick cell walls containing lignin, which is often laid down in rings or helices, giving these cells a very characteristic appearance under the microscope. Lignin makes the xylem vessels very strong, so that they dont collapse under pressure, and they also make woody stems strong.
Xylem vessels LS TS Xylem vessels show different patterns of woody thickening (lignification), giving them a function in support as well as water conduction. Xylem parenchyma Fibre Pitted vesselVessel with annular thickening
Structure of xylem Xylem is a compound tissue, consisting of: two types of conducting cell, vessels and tracheids fibres (thin elongated cells with thick woody walls and no living contents) Xylem parenchyma (living cells with thin cellulose cell walls)
Vessels and tracheids Vessels are short hollow cells with woody (lignified) cell walls and no living contents at maturity. Their end walls break down, so that water can flow freely from one to the next. Many vessels have pits allowing sideways movement of water from vessel to vessel: this can help by-pass blockages. Tracheids are narrower lignified cells with tapered ends that overlap, transferring water from cell to cell via pits.
Xylem vessels Obvious in dicotyledonous plants Long cells with thick walls containing lignin Lignin waterproofs walls of cells and strengthens them Cells die and ends decay forming a long tube Lignin forms spiral, annular rings or broken rings (reticulate) Some lignification is not complete and pores are left called pits or bordered pits, allowing water to move between vessels or into living parts
Adaptations of Xylem to Function Xylem can carry water and minerals from roots to shoot tips because: Made of dead cells forming continuous column Tubes are narrow so capillary action is effective Pits allow water to move sideways Lignin is strong and allows for stretching Flow of water is not impeded as: there are no end walls, no cell contents, no nucleus, lignin prevents tubes collapsing
Xylem Structure and Function: Tracheids and vessel members specialise in efficient water transport. Long, narrow, dead cells with walls thickened and strengthened with lignin. Tracheids have intact end walls and are tapered at their ends. Vessel members do not have end walls. A series of vessel members forms a long continuous open tube called a xylem vessel. Pits in the thickened walls allow easy water transfer to neighbouring cells. Tracheids and vessel members also give great mechanical support to the plant. l
Structure of Phloem Function to transport sugars from one part to another Made of sieve tube elements and companion cells
Sieve Tubes Sieve tube elements not true cells as they have little cytoplasm Lined up end to end to form a tube Sucrose is dissolved in water to form a sap Tubes (known as sieve tubes) have a few walls across the lumen of the tube with pores (sieve plates)
Companion cells In between sieve tubes Large nucleus, dense cytoplasm Many mitochondria to load sucrose into sieve tubes Many plasmodesmata (gaps in cell walls between companion cells and sieve tubes) for flow of minerals
Phloem Structure and Function: Sieve Elements Specialises in efficient transport of food. Living cells but do not have a nucleus. Long, narrow, thin walled living cells. End walls are heavily perforated – called a sieve plate. A series of sieve elements is called a sieve tube. Companion Cells Assist the sieve element in food transport. Live narrow cells with a prominent nucleus. Its nucleus also controls the sieve element. Dense cytoplasm particularly rich in mitochondria.
Objectives: * describe the pathways and explain the mechanisms by which water is transported from soil to xylem and from roots to leaves; **explain the movement of water between plant cells and between them and their environment, in terms of water potential Movement of Water
How is water transported against gravity from the roots, up the xylem and to the leaves?
Think Like a Scientist Scientists use thought experiments to help them solve problems. 30
I wonder where trees get water from? Well, obviously from the ground. What are the processes involved?
How does water move through the transport system of a plant IF it does not have a heart to act as a pump? PAUSE to PONDER How is water lifted against gravity from the ground to the leaves through this transport system? Are the products of photosynthesis also carried in a set of vessels from the leaves to the roots? 32
Root Hairs Exchange surfaces in plants responsible for absorption of mineral ions and water. Plants constantly lose water by transpiration, all must be replaced by water absorbed through root hairs. Each root hair is a long, thin extension of a root epidermal cell. Only remain functional for a few weeks.
Efficient Exchange Surfaces Provide large surface area as are very long extensions and occur in thousands on each root branch. Have thin surface layer (cell surface membrane and cellulose cell wall), across which materials can move easily.
Root Hairs Arise from epidermal cells behind the tips of young roots. Hairs grow into the spaces around soil particles. In damp conditions, surrounded by soil solution containing small amount mineral ions. Soil solution mostly water so has a high water potential – slightly less than 0.
Root Hairs Root Hairs and other cells of root have sugars, amino acids and mineral ions dissolved inside them. Therefore they have much lower water potential. Therefore have a much lower water potential. Water moves by osmosis from soil solution into root-hair cells down this water potential gradient.
Water route between cells Apoplast: between cell walls of neighbouring cells Symplast: through plasma membrane and plasmodesmata to cytoplasms from cell to cell Vacuolar: same as symplast, but also through vacuoles
Water uptake from the soil Epidermis of roots contain root hair cells Minerals absorbed by active transport using ATP Minerals reduce the water potential in the cell cytoplasm (more negative) so water is taken up by osmosis
Movement across the root Active process occurring at the endodermis (layer of cells surrounding the xylem, some containing waterproof strip called casparian strip) Casparian strip blocks the apoplast pathway (between cells) forcing water into the symplast pathway (through the cytoplasm) The endodermis cells move minerals by active transport from the cortex into the xylem, decreasing the water potential (more negative), thus water moves from the cortex through the endodermal cells to the xylem by osmosis A water potential gradient exists across the whole cortex, so water is moved along the symplast pathway (through cytoplasm) from the root hair cells across the cortex and into the xylem
Passage of water across a root Root hair Epidermis Cortex Endodermis Pericycle Xylem
Passage of water across a root Some water enters the root hair vacuole by osmosis, and travels by osmosis from vacuole to vacuole across the cortex. This is the vacuolar pathway. Some water (blue line) crosses the cell surface membrane into the cytoplasm and passes from cell to cell via plasmodesmata: this is the symplastic pathway. Most water (red line) does not enter the living cells at all but passes along cells walls and intercellular spaces: this is the apoplastic pathway. The vacuolar pathway presents the most resistance to water flow (because of the number of membranes to be crossed), the apoplastic pathway the least … … but at the endodermis the apoplastic pathway is completely blocked by a strip of corky material (the Casparian strip) around the walls of the endodermal cells.
Passage of water across a root The Casparian strip completely blocks the apoplast pathway … … so that only the symplast and vacuolar pathways are available. It allows the flow of water and dissolved minerals into the plant to be controlled. Why is this important?
Movement through the xylem Water enters the xylem because its water potential is reduced by the upward pull (tension) on the water column it contains Adhsion of water molecules to the xylem vessel walls also helps maintain the column.
Casparian Strip Blocks the apoplast pathway (cell walls) Water and dissolved nitrate ions have to pass into the cell cytoplasm through cell membranes There are transporter proteins in the cell membranes that actively transport nitrate ions into the xylem lowering the water potential (more negative) Water enters xylem down concentration gradient and cannot pass back
TRANSPIRATION Objectives: *define the term transpiration and explain that it is an inevitable consequence of gas exchange in plants; **describe how to investigate experimentally the factors that affect transpiration rate; ***describe how the leaves of xerophytic plants are adapted to reduce water loss by transpiration; H/W : due in on 1/12 outline the roles of nitrate ions and of magnesium ions in plants
Cohesion-Tension Theory Water molecules have dipoles which cause an attraction between them. Water is pulled up the xylem vessels by transpiration. When this happens, the pull is transmitted all the way down the water column, pulling all of the water molecules up the vessel. For this to work, the xylem vessel must be a continuous column of water i.e. contain no bubbles.
Water movement up stem Root pressure: minerals move into xylem by active transport, forcing water into xylem and pushes it up the stem Transpiration Pull: loss of water at leaves replaced by water moving up xylem. Cohesion- tension theory- cohesion between water molecules and tension in the column of water (which is why xylem is strengthened with lignin) means the whole column of water is pulled up in one chain Capillary action: adhesion of water to xylem vessels as they are narrow
Give a definition of transpiration, explain why it is inevitable, and list the advantages of transpiration.
Transpiration Loss of water vapour from upper parts of the plant Water enters leaf from xylem and passes to mesophyll cells by osmosis Water evaporates from surface of mesophyll cells to form water vapour (air spaces allow water vapour to diffuse through leaf tissue) Water vapour potential rises in air spaces, so water molecules diffuse out of the leaf through open stomata
Transpiration: three processes Osmosis from xylem to mesophyll cells Evaporation from surface of mesophyll cells into intercellular spaces Diffusion of water vapour from intercellular spaces out through stomata
How water leaves the leaf Through stomata Tiny amount through the waxy cuticle Water evaporates from the cells lining the cavity between the guard cells, lowering water potential and meaning that water enters them by osmosis from neighbouring cells, which is replaced by further neighbouring cells and so on
Draw a large diagram of vertical section through part of a leaf, adding numbered annotations to show the pathway of water and the sequence of events occurring.
Water use in plant Photosynthesis Cell growth and elongation Turgidity Carriage of minerals Cools the plant
Measuring transpiration Potometer is used to estimate water loss
List as many factors as you can affecting transpiration and explain why they affect transpiration
Factors affecting transpiration Leaf number: more leaves(more SA), more transpiration Number, size, position of stomata: more and large, more transpiration, under leaf, less transpiration Cuticle: waxy cuticle, less evaporation from leaf surface Light: more gas exchange as stomata are open Temperature: high temperature, more evaporation, more diffusion as more kinetic energy, decrease humidity so more diffusion out of leaf Humidity: high humidity, less transpiration Wind: more wind, more transpiration Water availability: less water in soil, less transpiration (e.g. in winter, plants lose leaves)
Too much water loss Less turgidity Non-woody plants wilt and die Leaves of woody plants die first then it will die if water loss continues
Xerophytes Smaller leaves reducing surface area e.g. pine tree Densely packed spongy mesophyll to reduce surface area, so less water evaporating into air spaces Thick waxy cuticle e.g. holly leaves to reduce evaporation Closing stomata when water availability is low Hairs on surface of leaf to trap layer of air close to surface which can become saturated with water, reducing diffusion Pits containing stomata become saturated with water vapour reducing diffusion Rolling the leaves so lower epidermis not exposed to atmosphere also traps air which becomes saturated Maintain high salt concentration to keep water potential low and prevent water leaving
Xerophytes Cont. Some xerophytes may have large numbers of stomata. Xerophytes cells may have extra support to prevent cells collapsing when they dry out. Extensive root system. Leaves may have evolved to become spines, with water being stored in the stem e.g. cacti.
Marram Grass Found on sand dunes. When dry, leaves roll up, so stomata open to an enclosed space. Water vapour accumulates in this space = reduced diffusion gradient. Spines increase width of boundary layer
Marram Grass Leaf rolled up to trap air inside Thick waxy cuticle to reduce water evaporation from the surface Trapped air in the centre with a high water potential (less negative) Hairs on lower surface reduce movement of air Stomata in pits to trap air with moisture close to the stomata
Movement of Sugars Translocation: movement of assimilates (sugars and other chemicals) through the plant Source: a part of the plant that releases sucrose to the phloem e.g. leaf Sink: a part of the plant that removes sucrose from the phloem e.g. root
Sucrose Entering the Phloem Active process (requires energy) Companion cells use ATP to transport hydrogen ions out of their cytoplasm As hydrogen ions are now at a high concentration outside the companion cells, they are brought back in by diffusion through special co-transporter proteins, which also bring the sucrose in at the same time As the concentration of sucrose builds up inside the companion cells, they diffuse into the sieve tubes through the plasmodesmata (gaps between sieve tubes and companion cell walls)
Sucrose movement through phloem Sucrose entering sieve tube lowers the water potential (more negative) so water moves in by osmosis, increasing the hydrostatic pressure (fluid pushing against the walls) at the source Sucrose used by cells surrounding phloem and are moved by active transport or diffusion from the sieve tube to the cells. This increases water potential in the sieve tube (makes it less negative) so water moves out by osmosis which lowers the hydrostatic pressure at the sink
Movement along the phloem Water entering the phloem at the source, moving down the hydrostatic pressure gradient and leaving at the sink produces a flow of water along the phloem that carries sucrose and other assimilates. This is called mass flow. It can occur either up or down the plant at the same time in different phloem tubes
Evidence for translocation Radioactively labelled carbon from carbon dioxide can appear in the phloem Ringing a tree (removing a ring of bark) results in sugars collecting above the ring An aphid feeding on the plant stem contains many sugars when dissected Companion cells have many mitochondria Translocation is stopped when a metabolic poison is added that inhibits ATP pH of companion cells is higher than that of surrounding cells Concentration of sucrose is higher at the source than the sink
Evidence against translocation Not all solutes move at the same rate Sucrose is moved to parts of the plant at the same rate, rather than going more quickly to places with low concentrations The role of sieve plates is unclear