3 Some Teaching IdeasStudents to do research using texts and online resourcesIndividual task or group work?Students give presentations to class using ICT?Prepare students to write to a scaffold knowing key facts in each areaDebate Australia’s role as global citizen
4 Is Australia ‘punching above its weight’ as a global citizen?
5 Punching above our own weight? What does this mean?This term was used a few years ago to describe Australia’s role in the world as a ‘middle power’.
6 What is a middle power?a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have large or moderate influence and international recognition.
7 Australia’s Ranking Australia leaps in economic rankings.doc Austs_ranking.doc
8 Australia’s Self-Image A mature democracyRule of lawMulticultural success storyEconomically competitiveMilitarily – allied to a hyper-power - USAPolitically – we seem to have some cloutGoing well now but can we stand on our own in the future?
9 Punching above our own weight? Australia impressed other nations with its swift response to the crisis in East Timor in 1999andin military intervention and peacekeeping in many locations in the following years.
10 Punching above our own weight? This can be considered:EITHERA good thing because we are making a significant positive contribution in the worldORA matter of concern because we are over-stretching ourselves as a nation, and cannot sustain such an effort given our population and the size and growing power of our Asian neighbours
11 Punching above our own weight? To consider this question we need to examine in what ways that Australia has participated as a global citizen in the past.Then…We can consider whether Australia is involving itself in an appropriate way for a middle power today.
12 Australia as a Global Citizen AlliancesIndividualsTreatiesAustralia as a Global CitizenRegional OrganisationsUnited NationsHumanitarian ReliefPeacekeepingMilitary Action
14 ANZUS Members – Australia, New Zealand the United States Signed 1951 1st reason – originally as a US guarantee that Japan would not threaten Australia and NZ again2nd reason – in recognition of swift Aust’n support in the Korean War (1950)Purpose – mutual defence
15 SEATO South-East Asia Treaty Organisation Signed 1954 Purpose: to fight communism in south-east Asia - to be Asian counterpart to NATO (1949)Members – USA, Britain, France, Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan.
16 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 2008 2. Treaties60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 2008
17 2. TreatiesAustralia is a signatory to numerous multilateral treaties.Here are some prominent examples:UN Charter 1945Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948Genocide Convention 1948Geneva Conventions 1949Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 1968Convention Against Torture 1984Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 1996Rome Statute (1998) – led to formation of International Criminal Court (ICC) in 2002Kyoto Protocol 1997 (though not until late 2007)
18 Australia has also signed many bilateral (between just two nations) treaties. egAust-USA Free Trade Agreement 2005
29 Australia and the United Nations Australia had also been an enthusiastic supporter of the League of Nations from 1919Australia a founding member of UNJessie Street and Dr Evatt helped draft the UN CharterDr HV Evatt (ALP Foreign Minister) was President of the General AssemblyAustralia has been an enthusiastic supporter for most of the post-war periodAustralians have been involved in the work of many of the UN’s agencies and has actively contributed to numerous peacekeeping missions
35 4. Peacekeeping Most, but not all, are operations undertaken as part of the UN Cyprus 1964Sinai 1973Kashmir 1976Namibia 1979Zimbabwe 1979Gulf 1991Somalia 1993Rwanda 1994CambodiaEast Timor 1999Solomons 2003East Timor 2006
38 Military Action Korea 1950-53 Malaya 1955 Indonesia 1965 Australia played its part in maintaining peace and security in variousparts of the world by involvement in military actions:KoreaMalaya 1955Indonesia 1965VietnamGulf War 1991Afghanistan 2001 & 2006Iraq 2003
40 Humanitarian Relief Boxing Day Tsunami 2004 Some examples of the areas in which the Australian government and non-government agencies provide relief:Boxing Day Tsunami 2004Earthquakes – Indonesia 2006, TurkeyLandminesFamineHIV/Aids
45 ASEANMembers Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam
46 The ASEAN Regional Forum ASEAN Regional Forum: ██ ASEAN countries ██ Other ASEAN Regional Forum participants
47 ASEAN Regional ForumASEAN regularly conducts dialogue meetings with other countries and an organization, collectively known as the ASEAN dialogue partners during the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF).The ASEAN Regional Forum is an informal multilateral dialogue of 25 members that seeks to address security issues in the Asia-Pacific region. The ARF met for the first time in 1994.The current participants in the ARF are as follows: ASEAN, Australia, Canada, People's Republic of China, European Union, India, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Russia, East Timor, and the United States. Bangladesh was added to ARF as the 26th member, starting from July 28, 2006.
48 APECThe Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a group of Pacific Rim countries who meet with the purpose of improving economic and political ties. It has standing committees on a wide range of issues, from communications to fisheries.The heads of government of all APEC members meet annually in a summit called "APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting" rotating in location among APEC's member economies. APEC is famous for its tradition of having attending leaders dress in the national costume of the host nation.
49 APEC MembersAustralia • Brunei Darussalam • Canada • Chile • People's Republic of China • Hong Kong, China • Indonesia • Japan • Malaysia • Mexico • New Zealand • Papua New Guinea • Peru • Philippines • Russia • Singapore • Republic of Korea • Chinese Taipei • Thailand • United States • Vietnam
52 Stanley Melbourne Bruce Ex-Australian PMDistinguished career in League of Nations in 1930sPresident of League Council during Ethiopian Crisis (1936)One of the League’s most determined international statesmenBruce Report (1939) on international economic cooperation anticipated work of later Economic and Social Council of the UNchaired World Food Council of FAO
56 Jessie StreetFounding member of the League of Nations Union (Aust) in 1918Attended League General Assemblies in 1930 and 1938Only Australian woman delegate at the conference to create the UN in 1945Co-founder of Un Commission on the Status of Women and Charter of Women’s rights
57 Jessie Street http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A160396b.htm
58 John Sanderson1991 – Adviser to the Secretary General of the UN to bring peace to CambodiaCommanded UN force (UNTAC) in CambodiaSupervised successful elections in 1993 that ended civil war going on since 1970
60 Gareth Evans Foreign Minister in Hawke-Keating governments Led international community’s attempts to end Vietnamese occupation of and end civil war in CambodiaInitiated Canberra Commission on Elimination of Nuclear Weapons 1996Worked for UN in recent yearsInvolved in International Crisis GroupPromoted the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ doctrine (R2P) at the World Summit in 2005Worked with Hans Blix on the Weapons of Mass Destruction CommissionCould have been in the running for Secretary-General
62 Richard Butler Head of UNSCOM 1997-1998 Expert on nuclear arms control Wrote book Fatal Choice in 2002Critic of George W. Bush Administration’s unilateralist foreign policyAdvocate of strengthening Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
64 Helen CaldicottPassionate campaigner against the hazards of the nuclear age for 35 yearsWritten numerous books on nuclear IssuesOne of the influential women of the twentieth century – Smithsonian InstitutePresident of Nuclear Policy Research Institute in Washington DC
65 Helen Caldicott http://experts.about.com/e/h/he/Helen_Caldicott.htm
66 Steve Pratt Human rights campaigner Humanitarian work for CARE since 1993 in Iraq, Somalia, Rwanda, Zaire and YugoslaviaTaken prisoner in Yugoslavia in 1999Wrote book in 2000 – Duty of CareSpeaker on international issues
68 Rod Barton Expert in WMDs Member of the inspection teams in Iraq, UNSCOM and UNMOVICAdviser to US survey group in Iraq in 2003Embarrased the Australian Govt by stating that he saw abuse of prisoners in Iraq and passed this info on to the Govt.
70 Peter CosgoveLed INTERFET peacekeeping mission into East Timor in 1999Success of the mission made him one of the most respected and popular military leaders
71 Peter Cosgove http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Cosgrove
72 James Wolfensohn President of World Bank 1995-2006 Tried to address the needs of the world’s poorest countries1996 – launched Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC).Advocated trust building between the Bank’s clients, NGOs and private companies
73 James Wolfensohn http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Wolfensohn
74 Rowan GilliesMédecins Sans Frontières (MSF) – Afghanistan, Sierra Leone beforeMSF medical coordinator in south Sudan, then Liberia.President of MSF Australia in January 2002elected international president of MSF later in 2002
76 Frank Lowy One of Australia’s richest businessman Lowy Institute for International Policy - independent, non-partisan think tankto conduct original, policy-relevant research about international political
77 Frank Lowy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Lowy
78 So… Is Australia ‘punching above its weight’ as a global citizen?
79 Punching above our own weight? How has Australia performed as a global citizen in the past?What is Australia doing now?What should Australia do in the future?
80 Consider the following Know some facts on each of these areas
81 Australia as a Global Citizen AlliancesIndividualsTreatiesAustralia as a Global CitizenRegional OrganisationsUnited NationsHumanitarian ReliefPeacekeepingMilitary Action