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Australia as a Global Citizen

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1 Australia as a Global Citizen
Daryl Le Cornu Mount Annan High School


3 Some Teaching Ideas Students to do research using texts and online resources Individual task or group work? Students give presentations to class using ICT? Prepare students to write to a scaffold knowing key facts in each area Debate Australia’s role as global citizen

4 Is Australia ‘punching above its weight’ as a global citizen?

5 Punching above our own weight?
What does this mean? This term was used a few years ago to describe Australia’s role in the world as a ‘middle power’.

6 What is a middle power? a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have large or moderate influence and international recognition.

7 Australia’s Ranking Australia leaps in economic rankings.doc

8 Australia’s Self-Image
A mature democracy Rule of law Multicultural success story Economically competitive Militarily – allied to a hyper-power - USA Politically – we seem to have some clout Going well now but can we stand on our own in the future?

9 Punching above our own weight?
Australia impressed other nations with its swift response to the crisis in East Timor in 1999 and in military intervention and peacekeeping in many locations in the following years.

10 Punching above our own weight?
This can be considered: EITHER A good thing because we are making a significant positive contribution in the world OR A matter of concern because we are over-stretching ourselves as a nation, and cannot sustain such an effort given our population and the size and growing power of our Asian neighbours

11 Punching above our own weight?
To consider this question we need to examine in what ways that Australia has participated as a global citizen in the past. Then… We can consider whether Australia is involving itself in an appropriate way for a middle power today.

12 Australia as a Global Citizen
Alliances Individuals Treaties Australia as a Global Citizen Regional Organisations United Nations Humanitarian Relief Peacekeeping Military Action

13 1. Alliances

14 ANZUS Members – Australia, New Zealand the United States Signed 1951
1st reason – originally as a US guarantee that Japan would not threaten Australia and NZ again 2nd reason – in recognition of swift Aust’n support in the Korean War (1950) Purpose – mutual defence

15 SEATO South-East Asia Treaty Organisation Signed 1954
Purpose: to fight communism in south-east Asia - to be Asian counterpart to NATO (1949) Members – USA, Britain, France, Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan.

16 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 2008
2. Treaties 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 2008

17 2. Treaties Australia is a signatory to numerous multilateral treaties. Here are some prominent examples: UN Charter 1945 Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 Genocide Convention 1948 Geneva Conventions 1949 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 1968 Convention Against Torture 1984 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 1996 Rome Statute (1998) – led to formation of International Criminal Court (ICC) in 2002 Kyoto Protocol 1997 (though not until late 2007)

18 Australia has also signed many bilateral
(between just two nations) treaties. eg Aust-USA Free Trade Agreement 2005

19 3. United Nations

20 UN Headquarters – New York

21 2005 – UN 60th Anniversary


23 Former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan

24 Ban Ki-moon UN Secretary-General

25 Security Council – in the UN Building New York



28 Various UN committees

29 Australia and the United Nations
Australia had also been an enthusiastic supporter of the League of Nations from 1919 Australia a founding member of UN Jessie Street and Dr Evatt helped draft the UN Charter Dr HV Evatt (ALP Foreign Minister) was President of the General Assembly Australia has been an enthusiastic supporter for most of the post-war period Australians have been involved in the work of many of the UN’s agencies and has actively contributed to numerous peacekeeping missions

30 4. Peacekeeping

31 East Timor From 1999 – then with UN Again in 2006 Again in 2008

32 Solomons - RAMSI

33 Arc of Instability East Timor New Guinea Vanuatu Solomon’s Fiji


35 4. Peacekeeping Most, but not all, are operations undertaken as part of the UN
Cyprus 1964 Sinai 1973 Kashmir 1976 Namibia 1979 Zimbabwe 1979 Gulf 1991 Somalia 1993 Rwanda 1994 Cambodia East Timor 1999 Solomons 2003 East Timor 2006

36 Peacekeeping - websites

37 5. Military Action

38 Military Action Korea 1950-53 Malaya 1955 Indonesia 1965
Australia played its part in maintaining peace and security in various parts of the world by involvement in military actions: Korea Malaya 1955 Indonesia 1965 Vietnam Gulf War 1991 Afghanistan 2001 & 2006 Iraq 2003

39 6. Humanitarian Relief

40 Humanitarian Relief Boxing Day Tsunami 2004
Some examples of the areas in which the Australian government and non-government agencies provide relief: Boxing Day Tsunami 2004 Earthquakes – Indonesia 2006, Turkey Landmines Famine HIV/Aids

41 Humanitarian Relief For examples see:

42 Colombo Plan
Started 1951 Social development and economic aid to South-east Asian countries

43 Care Australia

44 7. Regional Organisations

45 ASEAN Members   Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

46 The ASEAN Regional Forum
ASEAN Regional Forum: ██ ASEAN countries ██ Other ASEAN Regional Forum participants

47 ASEAN Regional Forum ASEAN regularly conducts dialogue meetings with other countries and an organization, collectively known as the ASEAN dialogue partners during the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). The ASEAN Regional Forum is an informal multilateral dialogue of 25 members that seeks to address security issues in the Asia-Pacific region. The ARF met for the first time in 1994. The current participants in the ARF are as follows: ASEAN, Australia, Canada, People's Republic of China, European Union, India, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Russia, East Timor, and the United States. Bangladesh was added to ARF as the 26th member, starting from July 28, 2006.

48 APEC The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a group of Pacific Rim countries who meet with the purpose of improving economic and political ties. It has standing committees on a wide range of issues, from communications to fisheries. The heads of government of all APEC members meet annually in a summit called "APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting" rotating in location among APEC's member economies. APEC is famous for its tradition of having attending leaders dress in the national costume of the host nation.

49 APEC Members Australia • Brunei Darussalam • Canada • Chile • People's Republic of China • Hong Kong, China • Indonesia • Japan • Malaysia • Mexico • New Zealand • Papua New Guinea • Peru • Philippines • Russia • Singapore • Republic of Korea • Chinese Taipei • Thailand • United States • Vietnam

50 Canberra Commission

51 8. Individual Australians

52 Stanley Melbourne Bruce
Ex-Australian PM Distinguished career in League of Nations in 1930s President of League Council during Ethiopian Crisis (1936) One of the League’s most determined international statesmen Bruce Report (1939) on international economic cooperation anticipated work of later Economic and Social Council of the UN chaired World Food Council of FAO

53 Stanley Melbourne Bruce

54 Dr H. V. Evatt Foreign Minister in Curtin and Chifley Labor governments Leading role in creation of UN in 1945 President of UN General Assembly Leading role in creation of the state of Israel in 1948

55 Dr H. V. Evatt

56 Jessie Street Founding member of the League of Nations Union (Aust) in 1918 Attended League General Assemblies in 1930 and 1938 Only Australian woman delegate at the conference to create the UN in 1945 Co-founder of Un Commission on the Status of Women and Charter of Women’s rights

57 Jessie Street

58 John Sanderson 1991 – Adviser to the Secretary General of the UN to bring peace to Cambodia Commanded UN force (UNTAC) in Cambodia Supervised successful elections in 1993 that ended civil war going on since 1970

59 John Sanderson

60 Gareth Evans Foreign Minister in Hawke-Keating governments
Led international community’s attempts to end Vietnamese occupation of and end civil war in Cambodia Initiated Canberra Commission on Elimination of Nuclear Weapons 1996 Worked for UN in recent years Involved in International Crisis Group Promoted the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ doctrine (R2P) at the World Summit in 2005 Worked with Hans Blix on the Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission Could have been in the running for Secretary-General

61 Gareth Evans

62 Richard Butler Head of UNSCOM 1997-1998 Expert on nuclear arms control
Wrote book Fatal Choice in 2002 Critic of George W. Bush Administration’s unilateralist foreign policy Advocate of strengthening Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

63 Richard Butler

64 Helen Caldicott Passionate campaigner against the hazards of the nuclear age for 35 years Written numerous books on nuclear Issues One of the influential women of the twentieth century – Smithsonian Institute President of Nuclear Policy Research Institute in Washington DC

65 Helen Caldicott

66 Steve Pratt Human rights campaigner
Humanitarian work for CARE since 1993 in Iraq, Somalia, Rwanda, Zaire and Yugoslavia Taken prisoner in Yugoslavia in 1999 Wrote book in 2000 – Duty of Care Speaker on international issues

67 Steve Pratt

68 Rod Barton Expert in WMDs
Member of the inspection teams in Iraq, UNSCOM and UNMOVIC Adviser to US survey group in Iraq in 2003 Embarrased the Australian Govt by stating that he saw abuse of prisoners in Iraq and passed this info on to the Govt.

69 Rod Barton

70 Peter Cosgove Led INTERFET peacekeeping mission into East Timor in 1999 Success of the mission made him one of the most respected and popular military leaders

71 Peter Cosgove

72 James Wolfensohn President of World Bank 1995-2006
Tried to address the needs of the world’s poorest countries 1996 – launched Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC). Advocated trust building between the Bank’s clients, NGOs and private companies

73 James Wolfensohn

74 Rowan Gillies Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) – Afghanistan, Sierra Leone before MSF medical coordinator in south Sudan, then Liberia. President of MSF Australia in January 2002 elected international president of MSF later in 2002

75 Rowan Gillies

76 Frank Lowy One of Australia’s richest businessman
Lowy Institute for International Policy - independent, non-partisan think tank to conduct original, policy-relevant research about international political

77 Frank Lowy

78 So… Is Australia ‘punching above its weight’ as a global citizen?

79 Punching above our own weight?
How has Australia performed as a global citizen in the past? What is Australia doing now? What should Australia do in the future?

80 Consider the following
Know some facts on each of these areas

81 Australia as a Global Citizen
Alliances Individuals Treaties Australia as a Global Citizen Regional Organisations United Nations Humanitarian Relief Peacekeeping Military Action

82 The End

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