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Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12-1 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12-1 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12-1 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge Chapter 12 Power and Politics

2 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12-2 After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1.Define power and contrast leadership and power. 2.Contrast the five bases of power. 3.Identify nine power or influence tactics and their contingencies. 4.Identify the causes and consequences of political behavior. 5.Apply impression management techniques. 6.Show the influence of culture on the uses and perceptions of politics.

3 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12-3 Power The capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes Two facets:  Potential: power does not need to be actualized to be effective  Dependency: based on the available alternatives and their desirability

4 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12-4 Contrasting Leadership and Power DifferencesLeadershipPower Goal Compatibility Requires goal congruence Only needs dependence Direction of Influence Focuses on downward influence Concerned with influence in all directions Research Emphasis Emphasizes leadership style Broader topic: focuses on tactics used by individuals and groups

5 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12-5 Formal Bases of Power Due organizational position: Coercive Power  Complies from fear of the negative results Reward Power  Complies due to desire for positive benefits Legitimate Power  From the formal authority to control and use organizational resources

6 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12-6 Personal Bases of Power Stems from an individual’s unique characteristics: Expert  Influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge Referent  Based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits - charisma

7 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12-7 Effective Power Bases Expert and referent power are positively related to performance and commitment Reward and legitimate power are unrelated to organizational outcomes Coercive power is negatively related to employee satisfaction and commitment

8 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12-8 Power Tactics Used to translate power bases into specific actions that influence others More immediate than power bases Can result in the accumulation of a power base

9 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12-9 Nine Influence Tactics LegitimacyPressure Rational persuasionCoalitions Inspirational appeals Consultation Exchange Personal appeals Ingratiation

10 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Influence Tactic Effectiveness Most effective:  Rational Persuasion  Inspirational Appeals  Consultation Least effective:  Pressure Combining tactics increases effectiveness Direction, sequencing, individual skill, and organizational culture modify effectiveness

11 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Politics: Power in Action Politics occur when employees convert power into action Organizational Politics: Activities not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization  Outside of job requirements  Requires the use of power

12 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Legitimacy of Political Behaviors Based on sticking to the implied rules Legitimate:  Normal everyday politics – complaining Illegitimate:  “Hardball” activities such as sabotage, whistle- blowing, and symbolic protests

13 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The Reality of Politics Politics arise in organizations because of: Conflicting interests Limited resources Ambiguity in decision making Politicking: twisting facts to support one’s own goals and interests

14 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Individual Factors Contributing to Political Behavior Traits that encourage political action:  High self-monitors  High need for power Situational influences leading to illegitimate political actions:  Lower organizational investment  Greater the number of perceived alternatives  Greater expectations of success

15 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Organizational Factors Contributing to Political Behavior Organizational resources declining or distribution shifting Opportunity for promotion exists Organizational culture issues:  Low trust  Role ambiguity  Zero-sum reward allocation  High performance pressures  Leading by poor example

16 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Responses to Organizational Politics For those unwilling to play, or with modest political skills, the outcomes are negative  Moderated by individual’s understanding of who makes decisions and why they were selected  When perceived as a threat, people respond with defensive behaviors

17 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Impression Management (IM) The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them People may misrepresent themselves in situations of high uncertainty or ambiguity Misrepresentations may discredit the individuals – seen as insincere or manipulative

18 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Impression Management Results Interviews  Self-promotion and ingratiation work well Performance Evaluations  Ingratiation positively related  Self-promotion is negatively related

19 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The Ethics of Behaving Politically Questions to consider: 1.What is the utility of engaging in the behavior? 2.How does the utility of engaging in the political behavior balance out any harm it will do to others? 3.Does the political activity conform to standards of equity and justice?

20 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Global Implications Perception of Politics: Negative consequences are common Preference for Power Tactics: Differences exist consistent with cultural values Effectiveness of Power Tactics: Little evidence for differences

21 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Implications for Managers Power can be increased by:  Increasing the dependence of others  Gaining unique knowledge or skills  Minimizing one’s own dependence  Acquiring useful bases of power  Using effective power tactics  Avoiding coercion

22 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Keep in Mind… Informal, expert, and referent power are the most important Use consultation and inspirational appeals IM techniques effectiveness depends on the setting

23 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Summary 1.Defined power and contrasted leadership and power. 2.Contrasted the five bases of power. 3.Identified nine power or influence tactics and their contingencies. 4.Identified the causes and consequences of political behavior. 5.Applied impression management techniques. 6.Showed the influence of culture on the uses and perceptions of politics.

24 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.


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