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Developing Aircraft. Chapter 2, Lesson 2 OverviewOverview Key individuals involved in early aircraft development The names and anatomy of period aircraft.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing Aircraft. Chapter 2, Lesson 2 OverviewOverview Key individuals involved in early aircraft development The names and anatomy of period aircraft."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing Aircraft

2 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 OverviewOverview Key individuals involved in early aircraft development The names and anatomy of period aircraft The significance of other American pioneers in aviation following the Wright brothers

3 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Warm Up Questions CPS Questions (1-2) Courtesy of Comstock Images

4 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Quick Write Both the Wright Brothers and Glenn Curtiss were heavily involved with bicycles before taking up flight. What similarities do you see between bicycles, early motorcycles, and early airplanes? (Note to Instructor: Use Pick a Student button in CPS)

5 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Key Individuals Involved in Early Aircraft Development In the first decade of the 1900s the Wright brothers were making aviation history But other people were also becoming aviation pioneers Calbraith Perry Rodgers Louis Blériot Alberto Santos-Dumont Courtesy of the Smithsonian Institute(Dumont) Taken from wikipedia.com (Bierot and Rogers)

6 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Glenn Curtiss Thomas Baldwin was looking for a lightweight engine for his dirigible He saw how well Curtisss bike engine performed and asked if he could buy one Curtiss agreed and tweaked one of his engines for use in an aircraft Baldwins aircraft, with a Curtiss engine, was the first powered dirigible in America Courtesy of Underwood & Underwood/Corbis

7 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 The Aerial Experiment Association The Aerial Experiment Association Curtiss joined the Aerial Experiment Association Alexander Graham Bellbest known as inventor of the telephoneformed this group The group made some important design breakthroughs First, they built the first American plane equipped with ailerons

8 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 The Aerial Experiment Association Courtesy of the Library of Congress Glen H. Curtiss (left), director of experriments; John A.D. McCurdy, treasurer; Alexander Graham Bell, chairman; Frederick W. Baldwin, chief engineer; and Thomas Selfridge, secretary of the Aerial Experiment Associatioin

9 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Ailerons Ailerons aileron An aileron is a small flap on the wing for controlling turns Ailerons replaced the Wright brothers wing- warping technique The aileron was a more effective means to move an aircraft left or right It also provided lateral balance The association introduced ailerons to America but the idea originated in England

10 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 First Seaplane Members of the group also built and flew the countrys first seaplane Curtiss would later win the first government contract with the US Navy for seaplanes Courtesy of the US Navy

11 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Curtisss Fame Grows He won awards for distance and speed (the Scientific American trophy and an award at the Rheims Air Meet in France) Curtiss opened a flight school in 1910, the same year the Wright brothers opened their school Curtisss effect on aviation can still be felt today Courtesy of Bettman/Corbis

12 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Louis Blériot French pilot Louis Blériot was the first man to cross the English Channel in a heavier-than-air craft Although Blériot encountered problemshe got lost and his engine overheatedhe managed to land safely The flight took 37 minutes

13 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Blériot XI Blériot built and flew the first powered monoplane Courtesy of the Library of Congress

14 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Learning Check #1 CPS Questions (3-4) Courtesy of Comstock Images

15 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Names and Anatomy of Period Aircraft Names and Anatomy of Period Aircraft Frenchman Robert Esnault-Pelterie was the first to fully enclose the fuselage and use ailerons fuselage A fuselage is the body of an airplane containing the crew and passengers (or cargo) Enclosed cabins protected pilots and passengers from the wind and rain

16 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Multiengine Planes English brothers Eustace, Howard, and Oswald Short experimented with adding engines to their aircraft multiengine plane A multiengine plane is a plane with more than one engine Two (or more) engines upped an aircrafts power, reliability, and safety

17 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 The Triple Twin The Short brothers built the Triple Twin, a two-engine, three-propeller aircraft, in 1911 cockpit They placed one engine in front of the cockpita space inside the fuselage where the crew sits They mounted the second engine behind the cockpit

18 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Le Grand Russian pilot Igor Sikorsky designed a four-engine aircraft called Le Grand He flew it on 13 May 1913 He used four 100- horsepower engines to lift the 92-foot- wingspan airplane Courtesy of the Smithsonian Institute

19 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Rotary Engines The earliest engines were relatively heavy and inefficient One reason was that these early engines used water as a coolant Brothers Laurent and Gustav Seguin of France set out to reduce the motor weight Their solution? Rotary engines

20 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Rotary Engines Rotary engines used circulating air, rather than water, as a coolant radial The Seguins placed the engines cylinders in a radial, or round, pattern They fitted each cylinder with a fin to draw out the heat as the plane flew With these changes, engines became more efficient and their weight dropped

21 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 HelicoptersHelicopters Helicopters are different from other aircraft in two important ways: First, they dont have fixed wingsthey have rotating wings Second, they take off and land vertically Courtesy of Branger/Getty Images

22 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 HelicoptersHelicopters The wings of helicopters, like those of other aircraft, must be in constant motion rotors Helicopters have rotorsanother name for propellers Rotors are made up of blades, each of which acts as a wing, and as the blades rotate, they lift the helicopter Helicopters are also known as rotary-wing aircraft

23 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Manned Helicopters In 1842 W. H. Phillips got a model helicopter with a steam engine into the air In 1907 Frenchman Louis Bréguet flew one, as did his countryman Paul Cornu In 1909 Americans Emile and Henry Berliner also built and piloted a helicopter All these men faced one common problem: helicopters are difficult to balance No one would find a solution for 30 years

24 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Learning Check #2 CPS Questions (5-6) Courtesy of Comstock Images

25 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 American Aviation Pioneers While some aircraft pioneers were achieving fame as inventors, others were breaking barriers as pilots Those barriers ranged from distance to altitude to gender and race The early 20th century was a time when all kinds of records could be broken

26 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 The Vin Fiz Flyer Could Calbraith Perry Rodgers fly across the United States in 30 days? That was his goal in 1911 Newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst was offering a $50,000 prize Rodgers asked soft drink manufacturer Vin Fiz if it would provide financial support for his flight in exchange for nationwide publicity

27 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 The Vin Fiz Flyer Rodgers took off on 17 September 1911 from Sheepshead Bay on New Yorks Long Island The plane needed countless repairs and made many stops along the way It took 49 daysRodgers didnt win the award because the flight took too longbut he made history

28 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 The Vin Fiz Flyer Rodgers had earned a place in aviation historyhe made the first airplane crossing of the US from coast to coast Taken from centennialofflight.gov

29 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 First Enlisted Pilot Gets His Wings First Enlisted Pilot Gets His Wings PFC Vernon Burge was the first enlisted man to become a pilot The US Army Signal Corps Aeronautical Division had a general rule that only officers could be pilots Enlisted men trained as mechanics Burge was one of eight enlisted men who joined the division in 1907

30 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 First Enlisted Pilot Gets His Wings First Enlisted Pilot Gets His Wings Burge helped build a landing system for 1st Lt Benjamin Foulois airplane During this time, Burge learned as much as he could about airplanes He became a pilot in 1912 It wasnt until 18 July 1914 that the US House of Representatives passed a bill that authorized enlisted men to fly It also gave official status to the Armys aviation arm

31 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Bessie Coleman Bessie Coleman faced two obstacles to becoming a pilother race and her gender; she overcame both In 1921 Coleman became the first black woman to get a pilots license She had to go to France for training because no flight school in the United States would accept her She died in an airplane crash only four years after getting her license

32 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Blanche Stuart Scott Scott was Glenn Curtisss only female student in 1910 Curtiss worried about thisif Scott crashed, he feared hed be blamed for putting a woman in harms way So Curtiss did what he could to keep Scott from being able to take off

33 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Blanche Stuart Scott Nonetheless, Scott managed to fly one of Curtisss planes one day Scott had become the first American woman to solo in a fixed-wing airplane Courtesy of Hill Air Force Museum

34 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Bessica Medlar Raiche Some aviation historians think Bessica Medlar Raiche was really the first woman to go solo She made that flight on 13 October 1910 Raiche never got a license, but flying excited her She and her husband, François, formed a lightweight airplane company called the French-American Aeroplane Company

35 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Harriet Quimby In 1911, Quimby became the first American woman to earn her pilots license She was also the first woman to fly at night (1911) and to pilot across the English Channel (1912) She broke a fashion barrier, too, by designing and wearing a jumpsuit Courtesy of the Library of Congress

36 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Harriet Quimby Quimby entered the Boston Air Meet in 1912 She and her passenger took off over Boston Harbor in hopes of making a record 58 mph flight over a body of water At 5,000 feet, the plane flipped and nosed downward Quimby and Willard fell from the plane and plunged into the watersboth perished

37 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Matilde Moisant On 13 April 1911, Moisant became the second woman in America to get a pilots license She won the Rodman Wanamaker Trophy for flying at an attitude of 2,500 feet She also a court to acknowledge it was legal to fly on Sundays Her brother John Moisant, also a pilot, had died in a crash in 1910 His death deeply affected her and on 13 April 1912, she said shed make her last flight the next day

38 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Julia Clark On 19 May 1912, Julia Clark was the third American woman to gain her pilots license Sadly, she was also the first woman pilot to die in a crash She learned to fly at the Curtiss Flying School at North Island in San Diego After soloing in a Curtiss plane, she joined an exhibition group She took a text flight on 17 June 1912; she hit a tree limb, crashed, and died

39 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Katherine and Marjorie Stinson Katherine and Marjorie Stinson Katherine Stinson earned her pilots license on 24 July 1912 She was the fourth American woman to do so, and at age 16, she was also the youngest She would eventually become one of the most successful women in aviation Her younger sister, Marjorie, graduated from the Wright Flying School in August 1914 When WWI began, the sisters opened a school to train Americans and Canadians as pilots for the war

40 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 ReviewReview The first powered dirigible in America was equipped with a Glenn Curtiss engine Louis Blériot was the first man to build and fly a powered monoplane A multiengine plane had greater power, reliability, and safety than a single-engine plane Laurent and Gustav Seguin of France invented rotary engines that used circulating air rather than water

41 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Learning Check #3 CPS Questions (7-8) Courtesy of Comstock Images

42 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 ReviewReview Calbraith Perry Rodgers made the first airplane crossing of the United States from coast to coast PFC Vernon Burge was the first enlisted man to become a pilot Bessie Coleman became the first black woman to get a pilots license

43 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 ReviewReview Blanche Stuart Scott was the first American woman to solo in a fixed-wing airplane Harriet Quimby was the first American woman to earn her pilots license Bessica Medlar Raiche, Matilde Moisant, Julia Clark, and Katherine and Marjorie Stinson were also famous female aviators of the period

44 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Review Questions CPS Questions (9-10) Courtesy of Comstock Images

45 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 SummarySummary Key individuals involved in early aircraft development The names and anatomy of period aircraft The significance of other American pioneers in aviation following the Wright brothers

46 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Next….Next…. Donedeveloping aircraft Nextair power in World War I Courtesy of the EAA/Jim Koepnick


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