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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case Microbiology.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case Microbiology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case Microbiology B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Chapter 12 The Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Fungi Eukaryotic Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic Chemoheterotrophic Most are decomposers, but a few are parasites Mycology is the study of fungi Number of serious fungal infections is increasing List the defining characteristics of fungi. Differentiate between sexual and asexual reproduction, and describe each of these processes in fungi.

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fungi Table 12.1

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mycology: The Study of Fungi Table 12.2

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Characteristics of fungal hyphae: Separate hyphae have cross-walls or septa Coenocytic hyphae lack septa Hyphae grow by elongating at tips

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Aerial (with reproductive spores) and vegetative hyphae The fungal thallus consists of hyphae; a mass of hyphae is a mycelium. Molds Figure 12.2

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Unicellular fungi Fission yeasts divide symmetrically Budding yeasts divide asymmetrically Yeasts – various stages of budding Figure 12.3

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pathogenic dimorphic fungi are yeastlike at 37°C and moldlike at 25°C On agar surface, Mucor rouxii exhibits yeastlike growth; in agar it is moldlike Fungal Dimorphism Figure 12.4

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Conidiospores: Representative asexual spores Figure 12.5 Conidia arranged in chains on Aspergillus flavus Fungi classified by type of sexual spore Sexual spores usually produced in response to special changes in environment

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Life cycle of Rhizopus, a zygomycete: produces asexually usually

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fungal Life Cycle Figure 12.7 Life cycle of Talaromyces, an ascomycete: occasional sexual union of two strains

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Systemic mycosesDeep within body Subcutaneous mycosesBeneath the skin Cutaneous mycosesAffect hair, skin, nails Superficial mycosesLocalized, e.g., hair shafts Opportunistic mycosesCaused by normal microbiota or fungi that are normally systemic, but can infect any tissue Fungal Diseases (mycoses)

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sporangiosphore Conidiospore Arthrospore Blastoconidium Chlamydospore Asexual spores Figure 12.1

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PlasmogamyHaploid donor cell nucleus (+) penetrates cytoplasm of recipient cell (–) Karyogamy+ and – nuclei fuse MeiosisDiploid nucleus produces haploid nuclei (sexual spores) Sexual reproduction

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings ZygosporeFusion of haploid cells produces one zygospore Sexual spores Figure 12.6

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings AscosporeFormed in a sac (ascus) Sexual spores Figure 12.7

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings BasidiosporeFormed externally on a pedestal (basidium) Sexual spores Figure 12.8

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case Microbiology B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Chapter 12, part B The Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths List the defining characteristics of the three phyla of fungi described in this chapter.

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Conjugation fungi. Coenocytic. Produce sporangiospores and zygospores. Rhizopus, Mucor (Opportunistic, systemic mycoses) Zygomycota

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Generalized life cycle of a basidiomycete Zygomycete Life Cycle

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sac fungi. Septate. Produce ascospores and frequently conidiospores. Aspergillus (opportunistic, systemic mycosis) Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum (systemic mycoses) Microsporum, Trichophyton (cutaneous mycoses) Ascomycota

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ascomycete Life Cycle Figure 12.7

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Club fungi. Septate. Produce basidiospores and sometimes conidiospores. Cryptococcus neoformans (systematic mycosis) Basidiomycota

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Representative basidiomycetes: bird’s nest fungus on twig and mushroom-like form

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Basidiomycete Life Cycle Figure 12.8

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anamorphs Teleomorphic fungi: Produce sexual and asexual spores. Anamorphic fungi: Produce asexual spores only. rRNA sequencing places most in Ascomycota, a few are Basidiomycota Penicillium Sporothrix (subcutaneous mycosis) Stachybotrys, Coccidioides, Pneumocystis (systemic mycoses) Candida albicans (Cutaneous mycoses)

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Identify two beneficial and two harmful effects of fungi.

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

29 Economic Effects of Fungi FungiPositive EffectsNegative Effects SaccharomycesBread, wine, beerFood spoilage TrichodermaCellulose used for juices and fabric Cryphonectria parasitica (chestnut blight) TaxomycesTaxol productionCeratocystis ulm (Dutch elm disease) EntomorphagaGypsy moth control

30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mutualistic combination of an alga (or cyanobacterium) & fungus Alga produces and secretes carbohydrates, fungus provides holdfast Lichens colonize habitats unsuitable for alga or fungus alone Lichens classified by morphology: crustose, foliose, or fruticose Lichens Describe the roles of the fungus and the alga in a lichen.

31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lichens Figure List the distinguishing characteristics of lichens, and describe their nutritional needs.

32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Algae Eukaryotic Unicellular, filamentous, or multicellular (thallic) Most are photoautotrophs and aquatic Produce 30 – 50 % of world’s oxygen Reproduce asexually by cell division and fragmentation Classified according to structures and pigments Primary producers in the aquatic food chain List the defining characteristics of algae. List the outstanding characteristics of the five divisions of algae discussed in this chapter.

33 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Algae Table 12.1

34 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 12.11a Algae and their habitats

35 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 12.12b Green Algae

36 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Brown algae (kelp) Cellulose + alginic acid cell walls Multicellular Chlorophyll a and c, xanthophylls Store carbohydrates Harvested for algin Phaeophyta Figure 12.11b

37 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Red algae Cellulose cell walls Most multicellular Chlorophyll a and d, phycobiliproteins Store glucose polymer Harvested for agar and carrageenan Rhodophyta Figure 12.11c

38 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Green algae Cellulose cell walls Unicellular or multicellular Chlorophyll a and b Store glucose polymer Gave rise to plants Chlorophyta Figure 12.12a

39 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Diatoms Pectin and silica cell walls Unicellular Chlorophyll a and c, carotene, xanthophylls Store oil Fossilized diatoms formed oil Produce domoic acid Bacillariophyta Figure 12.13

40 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dinoflagellates Cellulose in plasma membrane Unicellular Chlorophyll a and c, carotene, xanthins Store starch Some are symbionts in marine animals Neurotoxins cause paralytic shellfish poisoning Dinoflagellata Figure 12.14

41 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Water molds Cellulose cell walls Multicellular Chemoheterotrophic Produce zoospores Decomposers and plant parasites Phytophthora infestans responsible for Irish potato blight P. cinnamomi infects Eucalyptus P. ramorum causes sudden oak death Oomycota Figure 12.15

42 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

43 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case Microbiology B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Chapter 12, part C The Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths List the defining characteristics of protozoa. Describe the outstanding characteristics of the seven phyla of protozoa discussed in this chapter,and give an example of each.

44 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Protozoa Table 12.1

45 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Eukaryotic – soil, water, microbiota in animals Unicellular Chemoheterotrophs Vegetative form is a trophozoite Asexual reproduction by fission, budding, or schizogony Sexual reproduction by conjugation Some produce cysts for survival Protozoa: Conjugation in ciliate Paramecium Figure 12.16

46 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings No mitochondria Multiple flagella Giardia lamblia Trichomonas vaginalis (no cyst stage) Archaezoa Figure 12.17b-d

47 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings No mitochondria or microtubules Cause diarrhea in AIDS patients Non-motile Intracellular parasites Nosema Microspora

48 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Move by pseudopods Entamoeba Acanthamoeba Rhizopoda (amoebas) Entamoeba histolytica – ingested red blood cells diagnostic for this

49 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Apical organelles for penetrating host tissue Nonmotile Intracellular parasites Complex life cycles Plasmodium (in two slides) Babesia Cryptosporidium (next slide) Cyclospora Apicomplexa

50 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cryptosporidium Figure 25.19

51 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasmodium Figure Infected mosquito bites human; sporozoites migrate through bloodstream to liver of human Sporozoites undergo schizogony in liver cell; merozoites are produced Merozoites released into bloodsteam from liver may infect new red blood cells Merozoites are released when red blood cell ruptures; some merozoites infect new red blood cells, and some develop into male and female gametocytes Asexual reproduction Intermediate host Merozoite develops into ring stage in red blood cell Ring stage Merozoites Another mosquito bites infected humnan and ingests gametocytes 7 5 Ring stage grows and divides, producing merozoites Definitive host In mosquito’s digestive tract, gametocytes unite to form zygote 8 Male gametocyte Female gametocyte Zygote Sexual reproduction Resulting sporozoites migrate to salivary glands of mosquito 9 Sporozoites in salivary gland

52 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Move by cilia Complex cells Paramecium has specialized structures (mouth for ingestion, anal pore, contractile vacuoles) Balantidium coli is the only human parasite Vorticella attaches by base of its stalk Ciliophora (ciliates) Figure 12.20

53 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Move by flagella Photoautotrophs Euglenoids Chemoheterotrophs Naegleria Flagellated and amoeboid forms, meningoencephalitis Trypanosoma Undulating membrane, transmitted by vectors Leishmania Flagellated form in sand fly vector, ovoid form in vertebrate host Euglenozoa

54 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Euglenozoa Figure 12.21

55 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

56 Cellular slime molds Resemble amoebas, ingest bacteria by phagocytosis Cells aggregate into stalked fruiting body. Some cells become spores Cellular Slime Molds Plasmodial slime molds Multinucleated large cells Cytoplasm separates into stalked sporangia Nuclei undergo meiosis and form uninucleate haploid spores Compare and contrast cellular slime molds and plasmodial slime molds.

57 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cellular Slime Mold Figure 12.22

58 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasmodial Slime Mold Figure 12.23

59 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings List the distinguishing characteristics of parasitic helminths. The Helminths Table 12.1 List the distinguishing characteristics of parasitic helminths.

60 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Infection by parasitic platyhelminth: may be due to fertilizer runoff that increases algae

61 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Helminths (parasitic worms) Eukaryotic Multicellular animals Chemoheterotrophic Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Class: Trematodes (flukes) Class: Cestodes (tapeworms) Phylum: Nematodes (roundworms) Adult stage parasitic helminth found in definitive host Larval stage found in intermediate host Provide a rationale for the elaborate life cycles of parasitic worms.

62 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Trematodes: Flukes Figure Heavy infestations may block bile ducts from the liver Describe a parasitic infection in which humans serve as a definitive host, as an intermediate host,and as both.

63 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Humans as Definitive Host (Lung Fluke) Figure Differentiate between an intermediate host and a definitive host.

64 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Humans as Intermediate Host Figure Tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, in intestines of canines

65 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cestodes: Adult Tapeworm Figure Humans serve as definitive host for beef tapeworm, and cattle are the intermediate host Humans serve a definitive host and can be intermediate host for pork tapeworm Humans serve as intermediate host for Echinocossus granulosus, definitive hosts are canines spp.

66 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nematodes: Eggs Infective for Humans Figure Roundworms have a complete digestive system. Pinworm Enterobius vermicularis, eggs deposited by female on perianal skin at night.

67 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hookworm Necator americanus – free-living larvae inhabit soil and infect definitive human host by penetrating skin

68 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings List the characteristics of the three groups of parasitic helminths, and give an example of each.

69 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

70 Nematodes: Larvae Infective for Humans Figure 25.26

71 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Define arthropod vector.

72 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda (exoskeleton, jointed legs) Class: Insecta (6 legs) Lice, fleas, mosquitoes Class: Arachnida (8 legs) Mites and ticks May transmit diseases called vectors Arthropods as Vectors Figure 12.31, 32 Differentiate between a tick and a mosquito, and name a disease transmitted by each.

73 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arthropods as Vectors Figure 12.33


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