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Factors and Multiples

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Factors of a Number A number may be made by multiplying two or more other numbers together. The numbers that are multiplied together are called factors of the final number. Factors of 24 1 X 24 2 X 12 3 X 8 4 X 6 {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24} A list of its factors Multiplication combinations to reach 24

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Greatest Common Factor (GCF) Greatest common factor is the greatest whole number that is a factor of two or more given whole numbers. next page

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What is the greatest common factor of 36 and 48? Factors of 36: Factors of 48: {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36}361218312496 {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8,12, 16, 24, 48}

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Factors of 36: Factors of 48: {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36} {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8,12, 16, 24, 48} What is the greatest common factor of 36 and 48? Which factors are common to both numbers? 12 12 6 6 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 Which is the greatest common factor?

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That was too much work. What happened if we forgot to include the 12 in one of the factor list? Greatest Common Factor (GCF) Want to learn a different way that’s easier?

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Birthday Cake Method to find GCF 3648 Think of any number that divides evenly into both 36 and 48 (a factor of both) For this example, I’ll use 2. 2 Divide both numbers by 2. 1824

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3648 2 1824 Birthday Cake Method to find GCF Think of any number that divides evenly into both 18 and 24 (a factor of both) For this example, I’ll use 3. 3 Divide both numbers by 3. 68

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3648 2 1824 Birthday Cake Method to find GCF 3 68 Continue this process until there is no other number besides 1 that is a factor of both numbers. 2 34 3 and 4 have no common factor except 1... so you can stop dividing.

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3648 2 1824 3 682 34 Birthday Cake Method to find GCF The product of the numbers along the side of the cake is the GCF of 36 and 48. The product of the numbers along the side of the cake is the GCF of 36 and 48. 2 x 3 x 2 = 12 2 x 3 x 2 = 12

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Birthday Cake Method to find GCF Observe another example. Find the GCF of 64 and 80. 6480 2 3240 8 45 8 x 2 = 16 no common factor except 1

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Multiples of a Number The products of a number with the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,... are called the multiples of the number. For example: 7 x 1 = 7 7 x 2 = 14 7 x 3 = 21 7 x 4 = 28 So, the multiples of 7 are 7, 14, 21, 28, and so on.

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Further examples: multiples of 2 are 2, 4, 6, 8, … multiples of 3 are 3, 6, 9, 12, … multiples of 4 are 4, 8, 12, 16, … Multiples of a Number

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Common Multiples Multiples that are common to two or more numbers are said to be common multiples. For example: Multiples of 2 are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, … Multiples of 3 are 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, … So, common multiples of 2 and 3 are 6, 12, 18, … 612 12 18 18 6

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Example 2: Find the common multiples of 4 and 6. Solution: Multiples of 4 are 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, … Multiples of 6 are 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, … So, the common multiples of 4 and 6 are 12, 24, 36, … 36 3624 24 12 12

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Least Common Multiple (LCM) The smallest common multiple of two or more numbers is called the least common multiple (LCM).

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Least Common Multiple (LCM) To find the least common multiple (LCM) of two or more numbers, list the multiples of the larger number and stop when you find a multiple of the other number. This is the LCM.

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Least Common Multiple (LCM) Find the least common multiple of 6 and 9. Solution: List the multiples of 9 and stop when you find a multiple of 6. Multiples of 9 are 9, 18, … Multiples of 6 are 6, 12, 18, … LCM is 18

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Birthday Cake Method to find LCM With the birthday cake method, you can find both the GCF and LCM at the same time! Let’s use a previous example…

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Birthday Cake Method to find LCM Find the least common multiple of 36 and 48.

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Birthday Cake Method to find LCM 3648 2 1824 3 682 34 Let’s make the birthday cake! Find the product of the numbers going up and on top of the cake. x x x x = 144 144 is the LCM of 36 and 48

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Birthday Cake Method to find LCM Another example: Find the LCM of 16 and 9. 169 Do 16 and 9 have any common factors besides 1? ? No, they don’t. So their LCM is their product… X= 144

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Birthday Cake Method to find LCM Another example: Find the LCM of 5, 6 and 8. Finding the answer by listing multiples of the largest number (8) would eventually lead you to the answer of 120. Multiples of 8 are 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88, 96, 104, 112, 120, … Stop at 120 as it is a multiple of both 5 and 6.

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Birthday Cake Method to find LCM The birthday cake method can be used to find the LCM of 5, 6 and 8. Watch! 5 6 82 3 45 x xx = 120

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