Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Cranial morphology of the first South Americans Implications for the settlement of the New World Walter Neves Mark Hubbe Laboratório de Estudos Evolutivos.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Cranial morphology of the first South Americans Implications for the settlement of the New World Walter Neves Mark Hubbe Laboratório de Estudos Evolutivos."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cranial morphology of the first South Americans Implications for the settlement of the New World Walter Neves Mark Hubbe Laboratório de Estudos Evolutivos Humanos Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva Instituto de Biociências – Universidade de São Paulo

2 Models for the Settlement of the Americas  Molecular Biology: genetic variation of extant Native Americans indicates that a single human biological population entered the New World  Cranial Morphology: late prehistoric, recent and present Native Americans tend to exhibit a cranial morphology similar to late and modern Northern Asians earliest South Americans tend to be more similar to present Australians, Melanesians, and Sub-Saharan Africans

3 Aim  In this study morphological affinities of early South Americans are investigated using the largest sample of early American skulls ever studied. All recovered from the Lagoa Santa Karst. Geographic Location of the Lagoa Santa Karst

4 The Sample Site N Males N Females InstitutionsChief archaeologist Lapa da Amoreira1-MNRJPadberg Drenkpol Lapa de Carrancas2-MNRJBastos d`Ávila Lapa Mortuária (Rockshelter) 22MNRJPadberg Drenkpol Santana do Riacho24MHN-UFMGAndré Prous Cerca Grande 623MNRJ Wesley Hurt and Oldemar Blasi Cerca Grande 7-1MNRJ Wesley Hurt and Oldemar Blasi Lapa Mortuária (Cave) 1-MHN-UFMGHarold Walter Escrivânia 3-1ZMUCPeter Lund Sumidouro1714 ZMUC / MNH / IHG Peter Lund Cerca Grande 21-MNRJ Wesley Hurt and Oldemar Blasi Cerca Grande 52-MNRJ Wesley Hurt and Oldemar Blasi Lapa do Caetano11MNRJ Padberg Drenkpol and Cássio Lanari Lapa D’Água-1MNRJPadberg Drenkpol Harold Walter Collection 11 MHN-UFMGHarold Walter Lapa Vermelha IV-1MNRJAnnete Emperaire Total4239

5 Fieldwork at Lagoa Santa Paleoindian Burial exhumated last week at Lapa do Santo (Lagoa Santa) Archaeological excavation at Lapa do Santo (Rockshelter) during this month One of Sumidouro’s skulls, recovered by Lund at Sumidouro Cave, Lagoa Santa

6 Chronological Context of Lagoa Santa human skeletons  Peter Lund (1843) & Harold Walter (1935) Coexistence between humans and megafauna  Wesley Hurt & Oldemar Blasi (1969) Radiocarbon dates for the human occupation at Cerca Grande Rockshelter 6: 9720+/-128 and 9028+/-120  French-Brazilian Mission (1970s) Excavations at Lapa Vermelha IV: charcoals found above and below the skeleton of Luzia were dated to between 11 and 11,5 BP, respectively Peter W. Lund (1801-1880) Danish naturalist

7  Recent efforts (1994-present) Direct dating of human skeletons by AMS Generation of minimum ages through the dating of calcite layers Excavation of new archaeological sites Visit to key sites looking for remnants of the original stratigraphy Poor collagen preservation in Lagoa Santa 22 human skeletons directly dated by AMS to between 8,5 and 7,5 BP Chronological Context of Lagoa Santa

8 SiteSampleMaterial datedLab numberC12/C13 Conventional C14 age (uncalibrated) Cerca Grande 6MN-1369Human boneBeta 161668-25,7 ‰ 8240 ± 40 BP Cerca Grande 6MN-1329Human boneBeta 161666-28,0 ‰ 8230 ± 50 BP Cerca Grande 7MN-1384CharcoalBeta 84446-25,0 ‰ 9130 ± 60 BP Lapa da AmoreiraMN-815Human boneBeta 161657NA 7070 ± 40 BP Lapa da Lagoa FundaMNH-HW294Human boneBeta 165379-25,3 ‰ 7870 ± 40 BP Lapa de BoleirasBL-K10 No.12CharcoalBeta 159242-25,0 ‰ 8820 ± 150 BP Lapa de BoleirasMN-1389Human boneBeta 155658-17,9 ‰ 8420 ± 100 BP Lapa de BoleirasBL-K12 No.14CharcoalBeta 159244-25,4 ‰ 8360 ± 50 BP Lapa de BoleirasMN-1390Human boneBeta 155659-20,8 ‰ 8300 ± 50 BP Lapa de BoleirasBL-K10 No.13CharcoalBeta 159243-25,0 ‰ 7560 ± 110 BP Lapa de CarrancasMN-627Human boneBeta 161656-21,8 ‰ 7970 ± 40 BP Lapa de Escrivânia 3ZMUCESC3HSHuman boneBeta 174734-19,6 ‰ 7740 ± 80 BP Lapa do Baú 2ZMUC 2358Human boneBeta 174735-19,2 ‰ 8830 ± 50 BP Lapa do BragaZMUC 4725Human boneBeta 174736-19,2 ‰ 9780 ± 70BP Lapa do SumidouroZMUCBR789CCharcoalBeta 172187-29,5 ‰ 7650 ± 50 BP Lapa do SumidouroZMUCBR789SShellBeta 172187-9,1 ‰ 8960 ± 50 BP Lapa do SumidouroZMUCBR247CCharcoalBeta 174730-26,4 ‰ 7680 ± 40 BP Lapa do SumidouroZMUCBR321SShellBeta 174732-9,5 ‰ 7590 ± 80 BP Lapa do SumidouroZMUCBR789ACalcite-- >8150 ± 450 BP Lapa do SumidouroZMUCBR789BCalcite-- >7674 ± 456 BP Lapa MortuáriaMN-834Human boneBeta 161658-18,6 ‰ 8810 ± 50 BP Lapa MortuáriaMN-928Human boneBeta 161663-19,4 ‰ 8350 ± 40 BP Lapa MortuáriaMN-923Human boneBeta 161662-19,2 ‰ 8290 ± 40 BP Lapa MortuáriaMN-847Human boneBeta 161659-19,1‰ 7190 ± 50 BP Lapa Mortuária (Cave)MN-ConfinsHuman boneBeta 174680-33,4 ‰ 11990 ± 50 BP Santana do RiachoSep XIIICharcoalGif 4508NA 9460 ± 110 BP Santana do RiachoSR1-XXHuman boneBeta 162014-24,9 ‰ 8280 ± 40 BP Santana do RiachoSep XXIIICharcoalGif 5088NA 8230 ± 150 BP Santana do RiachoSep IVCharcoalGif 5087NA8150 ± 150 BP Radiometric dates for human skeletons from Lagoa Santa area, Minas Gerais (all human bones by AMS).

9 Chronology of the human occupation at Lagoa Santa  11,5 kyr – 10,0 kyr – Scarce human presence, without formal occupation of the rockshelters.  10,0 kyr - 7,5 kyr – First signs of permanent occupation of the rockshelters.  8,5 kyr – 7,5 kyr – Peak of burials in the rockshelters.  7,0 kyr – 2,5 kyr – Scarce human presence in Lagoa Santa, with no burial found (Archaic Gap).  2,5 kyr – Arrival of ceramists at the region.

10 Chronology assumed Site N Males N Females Chronological Range (years BP) InstitutionsChief archaeologists Lapa da Amoreira1- 7000 MNRJPadberg Drenkpol Lapa de Carrancas2-  8000 MNRJBastos d`Ávila Lapa Mortuária (Rockshelter) 227000 to 9000MNRJPadberg Drenkpol Santana do Riacho248000 to 9500MHN-UFMGAndré Prous Cerca Grande 6238000 to 8500MNRJ Wesley Hurt and Oldemar Blasi Cerca Grande 7-1  9000 MNRJ Wesley Hurt and Oldemar Blasi Lapa Mortuária (Cave) 1-11000 to 12000MHN-UFMGHarold Walter Escrivânia 3-1  7700 ZMUCPeter Lund Sumidouro1714> 8000 ZMUC / MNH / IHG Peter Lund Cerca Grande 21-8000 to 8500MNRJ Wesley Hurt and Oldemar Blasi Cerca Grande 52-8000 to 8500MNRJ Wesley Hurt and Oldemar Blasi Lapa do Caetano118000 to 8500MNRJ Padberg Drenkpol and Cássio Lanari Lapa D’Água-18000 to 8500MNRJPadberg Drenkpol Harold Walter Collection 11 8000 to 8500MHN-UFMGHarold Walter Lapa Vermelha IV-111000 to 11500MNRJAnnete Emperaire Total4239

11 Material and Methods  Comparative Samples Howells’ samples representing 6 global regions  Asia  Recent America  Europe  Africa  Polynesia  Australia/Melanesia Two late archaic Brazilian samples (shellmounds)  Base Aérea  Tapera

12  Multivariate Analyses presented here Principal Coordinates Analyses assuming heritability 0,55 (size and shape, and shape alone) – 55 best preserved skulls. Principal Components Analyses with heritability 1,0 (size and shape, and shape alone) – centroids of the 81 skulls. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) applied to Mahalanobis Distance assuming heritability 0,55 (size and shape, and shape alone) - 55 best preserved skulls. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) applied to Mahalanobis Distance assuming heritability 1,0 (size and shape, and shape alone) - 55 best preserved skulls. Principal Components Analyses taking into account the individual dispersion of the sample (size and shape, and shape alone) - 55 best preserved skulls. Material and Methods

13 Principal Coordinate Analysis (h 2 =0,55) Males size and Shape Females Shape alone Females size and Shape Males Shape alone

14  Multivariate Analyses presented here Principal Coordinates Analyses assuming heritability 0,55 (size and shape, and shape alone) – 55 best preserved skulls. Principal Components Analyses with heritability 1,0 (size and shape, and shape alone) – centroids of the 81 skulls. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) applied to Mahalanobis Distance assuming heritability 0,55 (size and shape, and shape alone) - 55 best preserved skulls. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) applied to Mahalanobis Distance assuming heritability 1,0 (size and shape, and shape alone) - 55 best preserved skulls. Principal Components Analyses taking into account the individual dispersion of the sample (size and shape, and shape alone) - 55 best preserved skulls. Material and Methods

15 Principal Components Analyses (h 2 =1,0) Males size and Shape Females Shape alone Females size and Shape Males Shape alone

16  Multivariate Analyses presented here Principal Coordinates Analyses assuming heritability 0,55 (size and shape, and shape alone) – 55 best preserved skulls. Principal Components Analyses with heritability 1,0 (size and shape, and shape alone) – centroids of the 81 skulls. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) applied to Mahalanobis Distance assuming heritability 0,55 (size and shape, and shape alone) - 55 best preserved skulls. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) applied to Mahalanobis Distance assuming heritability 1,0 (size and shape, and shape alone) - 55 best preserved skulls. Principal Components Analyses taking into account the individual dispersion of the sample (size and shape, and shape alone) - 55 best preserved skulls. Material and Methods

17 MDS based on Mahalanobis Distance (h 2 =0,55) Males size and Shape Females Shape alone Females size and Shape Males Shape alone

18 MDS based on Mahalanobis Distance (h 2 =1,0) Males size and Shape Females Shape alone Females size and Shape Males Shape alone

19  Multivariate Analyses presented here Principal Coordinates Analyses assuming heritability 0,55 (size and shape, and shape alone) – 55 best preserved skulls. Principal Components Analyses with heritability 1,0 (size and shape, and shape alone) – centroids of the 81 skulls. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) applied to Mahalanobis Distance assuming heritability 0,55 (size and shape, and shape alone) - 55 best preserved skulls. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) applied to Mahalanobis Distance assuming heritability 1,0 (size and shape, and shape alone) - 55 best preserved skulls. Principal Components Analyses taking into account the individual dispersion of the sample (size and shape, and shape alone) - 55 best preserved skulls. Material and Methods

20 Principal Components Analysis (h 2 =1,0) Males size and Shape Females Shape alone Females size and Shape Males Shape alone

21 Discussion and Conclusions  the first South Americans exhibit a cranial morphology very different from late and modern Northeastern Asians and Amerindians  Two competing hypothesis local microevolutionary process mediated by selection and/or drift transformed the Paleoamerican morphology into that prevailing today among Native Americans the New World was successively occupied by two morphologically differentiated human stocks, with the Paleoamerican morphology entering first

22 Discussion and Conclusions the New World was successively occupied by two morphologically differentiated human stocks, with the Paleoamerican morphology entering first “The two main biological components model”

23 Cranial morphology of early Americans from Lagoa Santa Implications for the settlement of the New World Walter Neves Mark Hubbe Laboratório de Estudos Evolutivos Humanos Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva Instituto de Biociências – Universidade de São Paulo


Download ppt "Cranial morphology of the first South Americans Implications for the settlement of the New World Walter Neves Mark Hubbe Laboratório de Estudos Evolutivos."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google