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C HAPTER 12: E MOTION Jacquelyn Eisen and Maya Strauss.

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Presentation on theme: "C HAPTER 12: E MOTION Jacquelyn Eisen and Maya Strauss."— Presentation transcript:

1 C HAPTER 12: E MOTION Jacquelyn Eisen and Maya Strauss

2 E MOTIONS : H UMANS VS. A NIMALS Fear Anger Sadness Joy Love

3 Challenges: Heart races Pace quickens Senses on high alert P HYSIOLOGICAL R ESPONSES

4 M ORE P HYSIOLOGICAL R ESPONSES Getting Good News: Eyes tear up Exuberance Newfound Confidence

5 D EFINING T ERMS : Emotions : Response of the whole organism involving physical arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience

6 James-Lange Theory : Experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)

7 Cannon-Bard Theory : Emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion)

8 Two-Factor Theory : Experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal Two Factor Theory: Stanley Schacter and Jerome Singer Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Fear (emotion) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal)

9 M ORE A BOUT T HEORIES William James: We don’t cry because we’re sad, we’re sad because we cry because we’re sad.

10 Walter Cannon: Body’s responses are not distinct enough to evoke different emotions.


12 A UTONOMIC N ERVOUS S YSTEM Sympathetic  sympathizing with the plight of your body Parasympathetic  decrease in emotional arousal


14 B ARRETT 2006 Fear, anger, and sexual arousal do not have distinct biological signatures. They feel/look different, but have similar brain patterns.

15 Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing) Pupils dilate Decreases Perspires Increases Accelerates Inhibits Secrete stress hormones Parasympathetic division (calming) Pupils contract Increases Dries Decreases Slows Activates Decreases secretion of stress hormones EYES SALIVATION SKIN RESPIRATION HEART DIGESTION ADRENAL GLANDS When you think happy, you smile. If you think scared, your pulse quickens.

16 The amygdala is most active when viewing fearful faces. Emotions in the right hemisphere are disgust. Emotions in the left hemisphere are happy. People more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one (Ohman, 2001a)

17 Positive personalities : More activity in left frontal lobe. Negative personalities : more activity in right frontal lobe. Dopamine : left frontal lobe, supports happy

18 D EFINING T ERMS Spillover Effect: puts things on something that it didn’t originate on. Ex: Play tennis bad  upset  still upset when doing homework

19 Polygraph : (lie detector) measures physiological responses accompanying emotion (sweat, breathing changes)

20 Q UESTIONING Control Question : aim to make you a little nervous Critical Question : If the response is less than the control’s response, it is inferred to be true. Critical > Control  Lie

21 P OLYGRAPH ISSUES Physiological Arousal is the same from one emotion to another Tests err about one third of the time. Control question Relevant question Control question Relevant question (a)(b) Respiration Perspiration Heart rate

22 M ORE P OLYGRAPH I SSUES Adrich Ames was a Russian spy in the CIA that passed all the polygraph tests.

23 P OLYGRAPH R EPLACEMENT Guilty Knowledge Test is more effective because only someone who knows information would react to details.

24 L IAR, L IAR B RAINS O N F IRE Anterior cingulate cortex and left prefrontal cortex light up when lying.

25 S HORTCUTS It skips the cortex, and goes from thalamus to the amygdala

26 Emotional before intellect intervenes. Some emotional responses have no thinking. Thinking occurs after the fact.

27 R EADING F ACIAL E XPRESSIONS Possible to tell what mood someone is in. Look at: Eyebrows Eyes Cheeks

28 D OWNSIDE OF C OMPUTER C OMMUNICATION Downside to computer communication: No tone of voice No gestures No facial expressions

29 W OMEN ’ S I NTUITION Nonverbal sensitivity gives them an edge in spotting lies Greater emotional responses in both negative and positive situations. Men Women Sad Happy Scary Film Type Number of expressions

30 “F OR NEWS OF THE HEART, ASK THE FACE ” Faces show feeling.

31 M OVIES AND E MOTION Judge feelings/emotions of characters based off the situation. Soundtracks are used to amplify emotions.

32 C ULTURAL D IFFERENCES Dominant religion varies between nations.


34 F EEDBACK Facial Feedback: Use muscles and enhances mood Behavior Feedback: Acting silly so you feel better.

35 T EN D ISTINCT E MOTIONS Joy Interest Excitement Surprise Sadness Anger Disgust Contempt Fear Shame Guilt

36 T WO D IMENSIONS OF E MOTION Positive valence Negative valence High arousal Low arousal pleasant relaxation joy sadness fear anger

37 W HAT IS A P HOBIA ? Phobia: intense fear of a specific object to the point where you are unable to cope. Heritable – there is a gene that influences amygdala’s response

38 E XPERIENCED E MOTION Catharsis: Emotional release Catharsis Hypothesis: “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges Feel-good, do-good phenomenon: people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

39 E XPERIENCED E MOTION  Moods across the day


41 E XPERIENCED E MOTION Subjective Well-Being: self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. used along with measures of objective well-being physical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life

42 E XPERIENCED E MOTION Changing materialism

43 E XPERIENCED E MOTION Does money buy happiness? Year 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Average per-person after-tax income in 1995 dollars Percentage describing themselves as very happy $20,000 $19,000 $18,000 $17,000 $16,000 $15,000 $14,000 $13,000 $12,000 $11,000 $10,000 $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Percentage very happy Personal income

44 E XPERIENCED E MOTION Values and life satisfaction Money Love 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 Life satisfaction 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 Importance scores

45 E XPERIENCED E MOTION Adaptation-Level Phenomenon: tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” level Ex: brightness of lights volume of sound level of income defined by our prior experience Relative Deprivation: perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

46 A C ANCER P ATIENT : (B EFORE & A FTER F INDING O UT C ANCER F REE ) Upset  Elated  Back to Normal


48 H APPINESS IS... Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries) Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful) Education levels Parenthood (having children or not) Physical attractiveness

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