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Jacquelyn Eisen and Maya Strauss

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1 Jacquelyn Eisen and Maya Strauss
Chapter 12: Emotion Jacquelyn Eisen and Maya Strauss

2 Emotions: Humans vs. Animals
Fear Anger Sadness Joy Love

3 Physiological Responses
Challenges: Heart races Pace quickens Senses on high alert

4 More Physiological Responses
Getting Good News: Eyes tear up Exuberance Newfound Confidence

5 Defining Terms: Emotions: Response of the whole organism involving physical arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience

6 James-Lange Theory: Experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)

7 Cannon-Bard Theory: Emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion)

8 Two Factor Theory: Stanley Schacter and Jerome Singer
Two-Factor Theory: Experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal Two Factor Theory: Stanley Schacter and Jerome Singer Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Fear (emotion) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal)

9 More About Theories William James: We don’t cry because we’re sad, we’re sad because we cry because we’re sad.

10 Walter Cannon: Body’s responses are not distinct enough to evoke different emotions.

11 Theories of Emotion

12 Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic  sympathizing with the plight of your body Parasympathetic  decrease in emotional arousal

13 Arousal

14 Barrett 2006 Fear, anger, and sexual arousal do not have distinct biological signatures. They feel/look different, but have similar brain patterns.

15 Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal
When you think happy, you smile. If you think scared, your pulse quickens. Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing) Pupils dilate Decreases Perspires Increases Accelerates Inhibits Secrete stress hormones Parasympathetic division (calming) Pupils contract Dries Slows Activates secretion of stress EYES SALIVATION SKIN RESPIRATION HEART DIGESTION ADRENAL GLANDS

16 The amygdala is most active when viewing fearful faces.
Emotions in the right hemisphere are disgust. Emotions in the left hemisphere are happy. People more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one (Ohman, 2001a)

17 Positive personalities: More activity in left frontal lobe.
Negative personalities: more activity in right frontal lobe. Dopamine: left frontal lobe, supports happy

18 Defining Terms Spillover Effect: puts things on something that it didn’t originate on. Ex: Play tennis bad  upset  still upset when doing homework

19 Polygraph: (lie detector) measures physiological responses accompanying emotion (sweat, breathing changes)

20 Questioning Control Question: aim to make you a little nervous
Critical Question: If the response is less than the control’s response, it is inferred to be true. Critical > Control  Lie

21 Polygraph issues Physiological Arousal is the same from one emotion to another Tests err about one third of the time. Control question Relevant (a) (b) Respiration Perspiration Heart rate

22 More Polygraph Issues Adrich Ames was a Russian spy in the CIA that passed all the polygraph tests.

23 Polygraph Replacement
Guilty Knowledge Test is more effective because only someone who knows information would react to details.

24 Liar, Liar Brains On Fire
Anterior cingulate cortex and left prefrontal cortex light up when lying.

25 Shortcuts It skips the cortex, and goes from thalamus to the amygdala

26 Emotional before intellect intervenes.
Some emotional responses have no thinking. Thinking occurs after the fact.

27 Reading Facial Expressions
Possible to tell what mood someone is in. Look at: Eyebrows Eyes Cheeks

28 Downside of Computer Communication
Downside to computer communication: No tone of voice No gestures No facial expressions

29 Women’s Intuition Nonverbal sensitivity gives them an edge in spotting lies Greater emotional responses in both negative and positive situations. Men Women Sad Happy Scary Film Type Number of expressions

30 “For news of the heart, ask the face”
Faces show feeling.

31 Movies and Emotion Judge feelings/emotions of characters based off the situation. Soundtracks are used to amplify emotions.

32 Cultural Differences Dominant religion varies between nations.

33 3 Things That Influence Emotion (PBS)

34 Feedback Facial Feedback: Use muscles and enhances mood
Behavior Feedback: Acting silly so you feel better.

35 Ten Distinct Emotions Joy Interest Excitement Surprise Sadness Anger
Disgust Contempt Fear Shame Guilt

36 Two Dimensions of Emotion
Positive valence Negative High arousal Low pleasant relaxation joy sadness fear anger

37 What is A Phobia? Phobia: intense fear of a specific object to the point where you are unable to cope. Heritable – there is a gene that influences amygdala’s response

38 Experienced Emotion Catharsis: Emotional release
Catharsis Hypothesis: “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges Feel-good, do-good phenomenon: people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

39 Experienced Emotion Moods across the day

40 Two Routes to Emotion

41 Experienced Emotion Subjective Well-Being: self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. used along with measures of objective well-being physical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life

42 Experienced Emotion Changing materialism

43 Experienced Emotion Does money buy happiness? Average per-person
Year 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Average per-person after-tax income in 1995 dollars Percentage describing themselves as very happy $20,000 $19,000 $18,000 $17,000 $16,000 $15,000 $14,000 $13,000 $12,000 $11,000 $10,000 $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 Percentage very happy Personal income

44 Experienced Emotion Values and life satisfaction Importance scores
Money Love Life satisfaction 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 Importance scores

45 Experienced Emotion Adaptation-Level Phenomenon: tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” level Ex: brightness of lights volume of sound level of income defined by our prior experience Relative Deprivation: perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

46 A Cancer Patient: (Before & After Finding Out Cancer Free)
Upset  Elated  Back to Normal

47 “I Cried Because I had No Shoes... Until I met a man who had no feet”

48 Happiness is... However, Happiness Seems Not Much
Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries) Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful) Education levels Parenthood (having children or not) Physical attractiveness

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