Presentation on theme: "Jacquelyn Eisen and Maya Strauss"— Presentation transcript:
1 Jacquelyn Eisen and Maya Strauss Chapter 12: EmotionJacquelyn Eisen and Maya Strauss
2 Emotions: Humans vs. Animals FearAngerSadnessJoyLove
3 Physiological Responses Challenges:Heart racesPace quickensSenses on high alert
4 More Physiological Responses Getting Good News:Eyes tear upExuberanceNewfound Confidence
5 Defining Terms:Emotions: Response of the whole organism involving physical arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience
6 James-Lange Theory: Experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuliFear(emotion)Poundingheart(arousal)Sight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)
7 Cannon-Bard Theory: Emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotionSight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)Poundingheart(arousal)Fear(emotion)
8 Two Factor Theory: Stanley Schacter and Jerome Singer Two-Factor Theory: Experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousalTwo Factor Theory: Stanley Schacter and Jerome SingerCognitivelabel“I’m afraid”Fear(emotion)Sight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)Poundingheart(arousal)
9 More About TheoriesWilliam James: We don’t cry because we’re sad, we’re sad because we cry because we’re sad.
10 Walter Cannon: Body’s responses are not distinct enough to evoke different emotions.
14 Barrett 2006Fear, anger, and sexual arousal do not have distinct biological signatures.They feel/look different, but have similar brain patterns.
15 Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal When you think happy, you smile.If you think scared, your pulse quickens.Autonomic nervous system controlsphysiological arousalSympatheticdivision (arousing)Pupils dilateDecreasesPerspiresIncreasesAcceleratesInhibitsSecrete stresshormonesParasympatheticdivision (calming)Pupils contractDriesSlowsActivatessecretion ofstressEYESSALIVATIONSKINRESPIRATIONHEARTDIGESTIONADRENALGLANDS
16 The amygdala is most active when viewing fearful faces. Emotions in the right hemisphere are disgust.Emotions in the left hemisphere are happy.People more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one (Ohman, 2001a)
17 Positive personalities: More activity in left frontal lobe. Negative personalities: more activity in right frontal lobe.Dopamine: left frontal lobe, supports happy
18 Defining TermsSpillover Effect: puts things on something that it didn’t originate on.Ex: Play tennis bad upset still upset when doing homework
34 Feedback Facial Feedback: Use muscles and enhances mood Behavior Feedback: Acting silly so you feel better.
35 Ten Distinct Emotions Joy Interest Excitement Surprise Sadness Anger DisgustContemptFearShameGuilt
36 Two Dimensions of Emotion PositivevalenceNegativeHigharousalLowpleasantrelaxationjoysadnessfearanger
37 What is A Phobia?Phobia: intense fear of a specific object to the point where you are unable to cope.Heritable – there is a gene that influences amygdala’s response
38 Experienced Emotion Catharsis: Emotional release Catharsis Hypothesis: “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urgesFeel-good, do-good phenomenon: people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
41 Experienced EmotionSubjective Well-Being: self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life.used along with measures of objective well-beingphysical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life
43 Experienced Emotion Does money buy happiness? Average per-person Year100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%Averageper-personafter-tax incomein 1995 dollarsPercentagedescribingthemselves asvery happy$20,000$19,000$18,000$17,000$16,000$15,000$14,000$13,000$12,000$11,000$10,000$9,000$8,000$7,000$6,000$5,000$4,000Percentage very happyPersonal income
44 Experienced Emotion Values and life satisfaction Importance scores MoneyLoveLife satisfaction0.60.40.20.0-0.2-0.4Importancescores
45 Experienced EmotionAdaptation-Level Phenomenon: tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” levelEx:brightness of lightsvolume of soundlevel of incomedefined by our prior experienceRelative Deprivation: perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
46 A Cancer Patient: (Before & After Finding Out Cancer Free) Upset Elated Back to Normal
47 “I Cried Because I had No Shoes... Until I met a man who had no feet”
48 Happiness is... However, Happiness Seems Not Much Researchers Have Found ThatHappy People Tend toHave high self-esteem(in individualistic countries)Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeableHave close friendships or a satisfyingmarriageHave work and leisure that engagetheir skillsHave a meaningful religious faithSleep well and exerciseHowever, Happiness Seems Not MuchRelated to Other Factors, Such asAgeGender (women are more oftendepressed, but also more often joyful)Education levelsParenthood (having children or not)Physical attractiveness
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