Presentation on theme: "Management as a Behavioral Science. The Dynamics of Personality & Human Behavior Myers Briggs (MBTI) Johari Window (JW)"— Presentation transcript:
Management as a Behavioral Science
The Dynamics of Personality & Human Behavior Myers Briggs (MBTI) Johari Window (JW)
Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) The MBTI® is the most widely used personality inventory in history According to the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, approximately 2,000,000 people a year (world wide) take the MBTI. It helps to improve work and personal relationships, increase productivity, and identify leadership and interpersonal communication preferences for your clients Many schools use the MBTI® in career counseling. A profile for each of the sixteen types has been developed
Brief History of MBTI (Myers Briggs) Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist, suggested that human behavior was not random but was in fact predictable and therefore classifiable Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers (both psychiatrists) spent over ten years observing and developing better ways to measure these differences In 1956, the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in Princeton, NJ, published the first MBTI papers In 1969, Myers met Mary McCaulley, a clinical psychologist, and established the Center for the Application of Psychological Type (CAPT) Today, millions of Americans have taken the MBTI; it has also been show to be valid across many cultures including Japan, Spain, France, Germany …
What is the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)? A self reporting instrument Questionnaire Non Judgmental Is an indicator (NOT absolute!) of genuine preference A way to sort and type NOT measure Very well researched and documented Used internationally
Why do Companies use MBTI? Provides: better understanding of self and others improves appreciation of differences between people highlights a persons strengths and preferences better ways to look at team effectiveness is a non-threatening way to talk about people since there are no right or wrong answers…
When is MBTI Used? Management and leadership training Teambuilding Conflict resolution Self awareness and personal growth Career development Education Research
Some Cautions! MBTI is NOT a test – it is an instrument, indicator and tool You decide if is useful (almost everyone does) It does not embody truth with a capital T Preferences simply show how different kinds of people who are interested in different things, are drawn to various professional, fields of study and / or callings…
MBTI is a Powerful Management Tool It values differences in others Capitalizes on individual strengths Explores opportunities to be more adaptable
Preference Scales An instrument for measuring a persons preferences, using four basic scales with opposite poles. The four scales are: (1) extraversion/introversion, (2) sensate/intuitive, (3) thinking/feeling, and (4) judging/perceiving. The various combinations of these preferences result in 16 personality types says Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc., which owns the rights to the instrument Types are typically denoted by four letters--for example, INTJ (Introversion, Intuition with Thinking and Judging)--to represent ones tendencies on the four scales.
You should have 4 letters: Either E (extraversion) or I (introversion) Either S (sensing) or N (intuition) Either T (thinking) or F (feeling) Either J (judging) or P (perceiving)
Extroversion (E) and Introversion (I) Psychological Backdrop: (Jung) E is more influenced by their surroundings than by their own intentions The world in general, particularly America, is extraverted as hell, the introvert has no place The introvert goes by the subjective factor he bases himself on the world from within There is no such thing as a pure extravert or a pure introvert. Such a man would be in the lunatic asylum...
E I ends of the scale Extroversion (E) Energy is directed outward towards people and / or things The focus is to change the world The work environment is laced with variety and action... Introversion (I) Energy is directed inward centering on concepts and ideas The focus is to understand the world The work environment is oriented towards concentration and introspection...
General Characteristics of E I Persons Extraversion (75%) Gregarious Use many words Participative Redundant Free Disclosure Patricia Pitcher Breadth Silence is embarrassing Scattered energy Introversion (25%) Reserved / Private Economical in words Good listener Reflective Succinct Careful disclosure Spatially conservative Depth Silence is a blessing Concentrated energy
S N ends of the scale Sensing (S) The mode of perception is via the know five senses Focus is on practicality, reality and pragmatic approaches The work environment centers on the use of learned skills and expertise... Intuition (N) The mode of perception is inspiration Focus is on innovation, creativity and future achievements The work environment engages adding new skills or adapting old ones to new applications...
General Characteristics of S N Person Sensing (75%) What is real The 5 senses Concrete Doing Specific Action oriented Realistic Tangible Today Practical Perspiration Intuition (25%) What can be Sixth sense Abstract To Envision Theoretical Insight Futuristic Conceptual Tomorrow Vision Inspiration
Thinking (T) and Feeling (F) Psychological Backdrop: (Jung) Thinking tells you what is. Feeling tells you whether it is agreeable or not, to be accepted or rejected This dichotomy, according to Jung, is the sensation/intuition dichotomy. Sensation tells you that there is something....And intuition-- how there is or isnt a difficulty. Jung defines intuition as a perception via the unconscious Management and Marketing Examples for class discussion
Thinking (T) and Feeling (F) Thinking (T) Decision making is based on logic The focus is on truths and principles The work environment is earmarked by brevity and is businesslike. Individuals are treated fairly Feeling (F) Decision making is based on values and needs People and harmony are the main focus The work environment is naturally friendly and people are treated uniquely
General Characteristics of T F persons Thinking (50% Brain Cause and Effect Impersonal Objective Principles Analytical What Task Justice Firm minded Logical Feeling (50% Heart Impact on others Personal Subjective Circumstances Gut Who Maintenance Mercy Generous Harmonizer
Judgment (J) and Perception (P) Judgment (J) A lifestyle of planning The focus is to be decisive The work environment is highly oriented towards completion of task... Perception (P) A lifestyle leaning towards spontaneity Focus is on adaptation The work environment centers on starting new tasks
General Characteristics of J P Persons Judging (50%) Anticipate / schedule Get on with it Finished On time Orderly Control the environment Bottom line oriented Organized Lists Perceivers (50%) See what happens Keep going Another angle On a roll Lots of time Spontaneous Adapt to environment Process Open ended Data Searching
Outline of Four Letter Indicators There are sixteen classifications: ISTJ: Doing what should be done ISFJ: A high sense of duty INFJ: An inspiration to others INTJ: Everything has room for improvement ISTP: Ready to try anything once ISFP: Sees much but shares little INFP: Performing noble service to aid society ESTP: The ultimate realist ESFP: You only go around once in life ENFP: Giving life an extra squeeze ENTP: One exciting challenge after another ESTJ: Lifes administrators ESFJ: Hosts and Hostesses of the world ENFJ: Smooth talker / persuader ENTJ: Lifes natural leaders
The Johari Window Ingham and Luft presented The Johari Window to illustrate relationship in terms of awareness It lends itself as a heuristic device in speculating about human relations. It is simple to visualize the four quadrants which represent what is know as The Johari Window
The Window QUADRANT I. The area of free activity or public area, refers to behavior and motivation known to self and known to others. QUADRANT II, The blind area, where others can see things in ourselves of which we are unaware. QUADRANT III. The avoided or hidden areas, represents things we know but do not reveal to others, (e.g., a hidden agenda, or matters about which we have sensitive feelings). QUADRANT IV. Areas of unknown activity, in which neither the individual nor others are aware of certain behaviors or motives. Yet, we can assume their existence because eventually some of these behaviors and motives were influencing our relationship all along.
Known to Self Not Known to Others Known to Others Not Known to Self Window 1: Free Activity Window 4: Area of things unknown Window 3: Avoided or Hidden Area Window 2: Blind Area (to self) The Johari Window