2 The Dynamics of Personality & Human Behavior Myers Briggs (MBTI)Johari Window (JW)
3 Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) The MBTI® is the most widely used personality inventory in historyAccording to the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, approximately 2,000,000 people a year (world wide) take the MBTI.It helps to improve work and personal relationships, increase productivity, and identify leadership and interpersonal communication preferences for your clientsMany schools use the MBTI® in career counseling. A profile for each of the sixteen types has been developed
4 Brief History of MBTI (Myers Briggs) Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist, suggested that human behavior was not random but was in fact predictable and therefore classifiableKatharine Briggs and Isabel Myers (both psychiatrists) spent over ten years observing and developing better ways to measure these differencesIn 1956, the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in Princeton, NJ, published the first MBTI papersIn 1969, Myers met Mary McCaulley, a clinical psychologist, and established the Center for the Application of Psychological Type (CAPT)Today, millions of Americans have taken the MBTI; it has also been show to be valid across many cultures including Japan, Spain, France, Germany …
5 What is the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)? A self reporting instrumentQuestionnaireNon JudgmentalIs an indicator (NOT absolute!) of genuine preferenceA way to sort and type NOT measureVery well researched and documentedUsed internationally
6 Why do Companies use MBTI? Provides:better understanding of self and othersimproves appreciation of differences between peoplehighlights a person’s strengths and preferencesbetter ways to look at team effectivenessis a non-threatening way to talk about people since there are no “right or wrong” answers…
7 When is MBTI Used? Management and leadership training Teambuilding Conflict resolutionSelf awareness and personal growthCareer developmentEducationResearch
8 Some Cautions!MBTI is NOT a test – it is an instrument, indicator and toolYou decide if is useful (almost everyone does)It does not embody truth with a capital “T”Preferences simply show how different kinds of people who are interested in different things, are drawn to various professional, fields of study and / or callings…
9 MBTI is a Powerful Management Tool It values differences in othersCapitalizes on individual strengthsExplores opportunities to be more adaptable
10 Preference ScalesAn instrument for measuring a person’s preferences, using four basic scales with opposite poles.The four scales are: (1) extraversion/introversion, (2) sensate/intuitive, (3) thinking/feeling, and (4) judging/perceiving.The various combinations of these preferences result in 16 personality types says Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc., which owns the rights to the instrumentTypes are typically denoted by four letters--for example, INTJ (Introversion, Intuition with Thinking and Judging)--to represent one’s tendencies on the four scales.
11 You should have 4 letters: Either E (extraversion) or I (introversion)Either S (sensing) or N (intuition)Either T (thinking) or F (feeling)Either J (judging) or P (perceiving)
12 Extroversion (E) and Introversion (I) Psychological Backdrop: (Jung)E is “more influenced by their surroundings than by their own intentionsThe world in general, particularly America, is extraverted as hell, the introvert has no placeThe introvert goes by the subjective factor he bases himself on the world from withinThere is no such thing as a pure extravert or a pure introvert. Such a man would be in the lunatic asylum...”
13 E I ends of the scale Extroversion (E) Introversion (I) Energy is directed outward towards people and / or thingsThe focus is to change the worldThe work environment is laced with variety and action ...Introversion (I)Energy is directed inward centering on concepts and ideasThe focus is to understand the worldThe work environment is oriented towards concentration and introspection ...
14 General Characteristics of E I Persons Extraversion (75%)GregariousUse many wordsParticipativeRedundantFree DisclosurePatricia PitcherBreadthSilence is embarrassingScattered energyIntroversion (25%)Reserved / PrivateEconomical in wordsGood listenerReflectiveSuccinctCareful disclosureSpatially conservativeDepthSilence is a blessingConcentrated energy
15 S N ends of the scale Sensing (S) The mode of perception is via the know five sensesFocus is on practicality, reality and pragmatic approachesThe work environment centers on the use of learned skills and expertise ...Intuition (N)The mode of perception is inspirationFocus is on innovation, creativity and future achievementsThe work environment engages adding new skills or adapting old ones to new applications...
16 General Characteristics of S N Person Sensing (75%)What is realThe 5 sensesConcreteDoingSpecificAction orientedRealisticTangibleTodayPracticalPerspirationIntuition (25%)What can beSixth senseAbstractTo EnvisionTheoreticalInsightFuturisticConceptualTomorrowVisionInspiration
17 Thinking (T) and Feeling (F) Psychological Backdrop: (Jung)“Thinking tells you what is. Feeling tells you whether it is agreeable or not, to be accepted or rejectedThis dichotomy, according to Jung, is the sensation/intuition dichotomy. “Sensation tells you that there is something....And intuition--how there is or isn’t a difficulty. Jung defines intuition as “a perception via the unconscious”Management and Marketing Examples for class discussion
18 Thinking (T) and Feeling (F) Decision making is based on logicThe focus is on truths and principlesThe work environment is earmarked by brevity and is businesslike. Individuals are treated fairlyFeeling (F)Decision making is based on values and needsPeople and harmony are the main focusThe work environment is naturally friendly and people are treated uniquely
19 General Characteristics of T F persons Thinking (50%BrainCause and EffectImpersonalObjectivePrinciplesAnalyticalWhatTaskJusticeFirm mindedLogicalFeeling (50%HeartImpact on othersPersonalSubjectiveCircumstancesGutWhoMaintenanceMercyGenerousHarmonizer
20 Judgment (J) and Perception (P) A lifestyle of planningThe focus is to be decisiveThe work environment is highly oriented towards completion of task ...Perception (P)A lifestyle leaning towards spontaneityFocus is on adaptationThe work environment centers on starting new tasks
21 General Characteristics of J P Persons Judging (50%)Anticipate / scheduleGet on with itFinishedOn timeOrderlyControl the environmentBottom line orientedOrganizedListsPerceivers (50%)See what happensKeep goingAnother angleOn a rollLots of timeSpontaneousAdapt to environmentProcessOpen endedDataSearching
22 Outline of Four Letter Indicators There are sixteen classifications:ISTJ: Doing what should be doneISFJ: A high sense of dutyINFJ: An inspiration to othersINTJ: Everything has room for improvementISTP: Ready to try anything onceISFP: Sees much but shares littleINFP: Performing noble service to aid societyESTP: The ultimate realistESFP: You only go around once in lifeENFP: Giving life an extra squeezeENTP: One exciting challenge after anotherESTJ: Life’s administratorsESFJ: Hosts and Hostesses of the worldENFJ: Smooth talker / persuaderENTJ: Life’s natural leaders
23 The Johari WindowIngham and Luft presented The Johari Window to illustrate relationship in terms of awarenessIt lends itself as a heuristic device in speculating about human relations.It is simple to visualize the four quadrants which represent what is know as The Johari Window
24 The WindowQUADRANT I. The area of free activity or public area, refers to behavior and motivation known to self and known to others.QUADRANT II, The blind area, where others can see things in ourselves of which we are unaware.QUADRANT III. The avoided or hidden areas, represents things we know but do not reveal to others, (e.g., a hidden agenda, or matters about which we have sensitive feelings).QUADRANT IV. Areas of unknown activity, in which neither the individual nor others are aware of certain behaviors or motives. Yet, we can assume their existence because eventually some of these behaviors and motives were influencing our relationship all along.
25 The Johari Window Window 1: Free Activity Window 2: Blind Area (to self)Known to OthersWindow 3:Avoided or Hidden AreaWindow 4:Area of things unknownNot Known to OthersKnown to SelfNot Known to Self