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Chapter 12 The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812–1824.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812–1824."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812–1824

2 Themes The American effort in the War of 1812 was plagued by poor strategy, political divisions, and increasingly aggressive British power. Nevertheless, the United States escaped with a stalemated peace settlement and soon turned its isolationist back to the Atlantic European world.

3 The aftermath of the War of 1812 produced a strong surge of American nationalism that was reflected in economics, law, and foreign policy. The rising nationalistic spirit and sense of political unity was, however, threatened by the first severe sectional dispute over slavery.

4 Chief Justice John Marshall’s Supreme Court strengthened the federal government by supporting a loose construction of the Constitution, asserting the federal judiciary’s power over state courts, and enforcing economic provisions in the Constitution (interstate commerce, sanctity of contracts).

5 Causes of the War of 1812 British impressment
British Orders in Council American desire to wipe out Indian threat in West and eliminate Canada as a sanctuary Republican belief that war would restore confidence in American democratic experiment

6 Major Battles Canada - British repulsed American invasion of Canada
- U.S. won naval battles on Lake Erie and Lake Champlain Washington D.C. burned (1814) Baltimore defended (Fort McHenry) Battle of New Orleans (1815)- American forces led by Andrew Jackson defeated British

7 Constitution and Guerrière,
1812 The Guerrière was heavily outweighed and outgunned, yet its British captain eagerly—and foolishly—sought combat. His ship was destroyed. Historian Henry Adams later concluded that this duel “raised the United States in one half hour to the rank of a first-class Power in the world.” Today the Constitution, berthed in Boston harbor, remains the oldest actively commissioned ship in the U.S. Navy. p225

8 Map 12.1 Battles in the War of 1812
Map 12-1 p226

9 The Fall of Washington, or Maddy in Full Flight President Madison (“Maddy”) was forced into humiliating withdrawal from the capital in 1814, when British forces put the torch to Washington, D.C. p227

10 Federalist Grievances and the Hartford Convention

11 Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island Contemplate Abandoning the Union, engraving by William Charles, 1814 This anti-Federalist cartoon shows Great Britain welcoming back its “Yankee boys” with open arms, promising them “plenty molasses and codfish, plenty of goods to smuggle, honours, titles, and nobility into the bargain.” p228

12 Map 12.2 Presidential Election of 1812 (with electoral
vote by state) The Federalists showed impressive strength in the North, and their presidential candidate, DeWitt Clinton, the future “Father of the Erie Canal,” almost won. If the 25 electoral votes of Pennsylvania had gone to the New Yorker, he would have won, 114 to 103. Map 12-2 p229

13 The Second War for American Independence

14 Results of the War U.S. gained new respect
Sectionalism was weakened (temporarily) Federalists ceased to be an effective party Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison emerged as war heroes U.S. manufacturing prospered increased nationalism (spirit of national consciousness or national oneness)

15 The White House and Capitol, by Anthony St
The White House and Capitol, by Anthony St. John Baker, 1826 This watercolor painting reveals the rustic conditions of the early days in the nation’s capital. The President’s House (now called the White House), on the left, was designed by Irish-born James Hoban and built between 1792 and 1800 in the neoclassical style. It has been the residence of every president since John Adams. When Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he worked with architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe to expand it, creating two colonnades that were meant to conceal stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the British Army set the President’s House ablaze, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began almost immediately, and President James Monroe moved into a partially finished house in The Capital dome is visible in the background on the right. It, too, burned in Its rebuilding, not completed until 1830, was overseen by Boston’s Charles Bulfinch. p230

16 Nascent Nationalism Nationalism- loyalty and devotion to a nation; a sense of national consciousness

17 In what ways do we see evidence of American nationalism today?

18 Was America more or less unified after the War of 1812 than before it?

19 Nationalism after the War of 1812
One result of the War of 1812 was a new sense of nationalism Examples National literature School textbooks Painters Renewed Bank of the U.S. Larger army Rebuilt national capital in D.C. Manufacturing (and protectionism) Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper

20 Nationalist Pride, ca. 1820 Nationalist sentiments
swelled in the wake of the War of 1812, as Americans defined their country’s very identity with reference to its antimonarchical origins. p232

21 Tariff of 1816 First tariff in American history instituted primarily for protection, not revenue 20-25% rates Beginning of a protectionist trend “out-Federalizing the old Federalists”

22 “The American System” Plan by Henry Clay for developing a profitable home market Three parts A strong banking system which would provide easy credit A protective tariff A network of road and canals in the Ohio Valley funded by the proceeds from the tariff Eastern manufacturing would be promoted by the tariff

23 Foodstuffs and raw materials from the South and West would go to the North and East
Manufactured goods would go to the South and West The country would be tied together economically and politically

24 Henry Clay (1777–1852), by John Neagle, 1843 This
painting hangs in the corridors of the House of Representatives, where Clay worked as a glamorous, eloquent, and ambitious congressman for many years. Best known for promoting his nationalistic “American System” of protective tariffs for eastern manufactures and federally financed canals and highways to benefit the West, Clay is surrounded here by symbols of flourishing agriculture and burgeoning industries in the new nation. p231

25 Opposition to internal improvements
Madison vetoed a bill by Congress to fund internal improvements as unconstitutional -(Republicans returned to strict constructionism on this issue) New England also opposed federally constructed roads and canals since this would lead to new states in the west

26 Election of 1816 Republican James Monroe (Democratic-Republican) defeated Rufus King (Federalist) 183-34

27 The So-Called Era of Good Feelings
In what ways was the ‘Era of Good Feelings’ an appropriate name for the period after the War of 1812, and in what ways was it inappropriate? Term coined by a Boston newspaper

28 Underlying Issues The tariff The bank Internal Improvements
The sale of public lands Sectionalism Slavery

29 Fairview Inn or Three Mile House on Old Frederick Road, by Thomas Coke Ruckle,
ca This busy scene on the Frederick Road, leading westward from Baltimore, was typical as pioneers flooded into the newly secured West in the early 1800s. p233

30 The Panic of 1819 and the Curse of Hard Times
A significant cause was overspeculation in frontier lands (The Bank of the U.S. through its western branches had played a role in this) The Bank of the U.S. eventually forced the “wildcat” banks to foreclose mortgages on many farms Resulted in western debtor distrust of the Bank of the U.S. Political and social repercussions

31 Growing Pains of the West

32 Technology and internal improvements
The Cumberland Road (begun 1811) from Maryland to Illinois The use of the steamboat on western waters (1811) The Erie Canal (1825)

33 Slavery and the Sectional Balance
In 1788 the North and South were comparable in terms of wealth and population Over time, the North grew wealthier and more populous Balance was maintained in the Senate Missouri’s request for admission as a slave state upset this delicate balance House of Representatives tried to pass the Tallmadge amendment which would have prevented more slaves from being brought into Missouri and would have provided for gradual emancipation

34 South was upset with the amendment fearing it could set a precedent for other territory west of the Mississippi and that it might even represent the beginning of Congressional efforts to abolish slavery The issue of slavery was political and economic although a small group of anti-slavery advocates increasingly raised it as a moral issue

35 Antislavery Propaganda in the 1820s These drawstring
bags are made of silk and transfer-printed with “before” and “after” scenes of slavery. On the left bag, an African woman cradles her baby; on the right one, the grieving mother is childless and in chains, while slaves are being whipped in the background. These bags were purchased at an abolitionist fair, held to raise money for the antislavery movement. Purses and the like sold well at these events because women were prominent in the movement. p234

36 The Missouri Compromise
1820 Led by Henry Clay, Congress found a compromise Missouri admitted as a slave state Maine admitted as a free state Slavery prohibited north of the 36 30’ line 12 free states and 12 slave states A majority of southern congressmen voted against the compromise

37 Map 12.3 The Missouri Compromise and Slavery, 1820–1821 Note the 368 30’ line.
In the 1780s Thomas Jefferson had written of slavery in America, “Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that his justice cannot sleep forever; that . . . the Almighty has no attribute which can take side with us in such a contest.” Now, at the time of the Missouri Compromise, Jefferson feared that his worst forebodings were coming to pass. “I considered it at once,” he said of the Missouri question, “as the knell of the Union.” Map 12-3 p235

38 Thomas Jefferson to John Holmes
“this momentous question, like a fire bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror.”

39 “I take it for granted that the present question is a mere preamble- a title page to a great tragic volume.” –John Quincy Adams

40 Newcom Tavern, Dayton, Ohio Built in 1796, Newcom Tavern was a typical way station for the pioneers flowing into the newly secured Old Northwest in the early 1800s. Today it is Dayton’s oldest building. p236

41 Building the Erie Canal A major engineering feat, the Erie Canal created an artificial
waterway through upstate New York from the Hudson River to the Great Lakes, allowing people and goods to move to and from the Old Northwest more quickly and cheaply. p237

42 John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism
The Supreme Court under John Marshall strengthened the power of the federal government

43 McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Maryland tried to destroy a branch of the Bank of the U.S. by taxing its notes The Supreme Court ruled the bank constitutional by invoking the doctrine of implied powers Marshall denied the power of Maryland to tax the bank “the power to tax is the power to destroy.”

44 Significance Strengthened the concept of loose construction
The Constitution derived from the consent of the people and thus permitted the gov’t to act for their benefit It was intended to endure and therefore could adapt to new circumstances

45 “Let the end be legitimate, let it be within the scope of the Constitution, and all means which are appropriate, which are plainly adapted to that end, which are not prohibited, but consist with the letter and spirit of the Constitution, are constitutional.” –John Marshall

46 Cohens v. Virginia (1821) The Cohens brothers were convicted in Virginia of illegally selling lottery tickets Marshall and the Supreme Court upheld the conviction Established the principle that the Supreme Court could review a state court’s decision involving any of the powers of the federal government

47 Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) New York attempted to grant a monopoly to a steamboat company that operated between New York and New Jersey The Supreme Court ruled that Congress alone had the power to regulate interstate commerce (Article I, Sec. VIII)

48 Judicial Dikes Against Democratic Excesses
Marshall and the Supreme Court also issued a series of decisions that affirmed protections for property rights

49 Fletcher v. Peck (1810) The Supreme Court ruled that a state could not invalidate a contract The first time the Court declared a state law to be unconstitutional

50 Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
New Hampshire had tried to change Dartmouth from a privately chartered college into a public institution The Supreme Court ruled that the original charter should remain because it was a contract, and the Constitution protected contracts from state encroachment

51 At the same time that the nation was moving in the direction of greater popular sovereignty and control (especially at the state level), Marshall reaffirmed the power of the federal government and helped to create a stable environment for business along more conservative, centralized lines

52 Daguerreotype of Daniel Webster (1782–1852), by
Southworth and Hawes Premier orator and statesman, Webster served many years in both houses of Congress and also as secretary of state. Often regarded as presidential timber, he was somewhat handicapped by an overfondness for good food and drink and was frequently in financial difficulties. His devotion to the Union was inflexible. “One country, one constitution, and one destiny,” he proclaimed in 1837. p239

53 Sharing Oregon and Acquiring Florida
President Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams were both staunch nationalists in terms of foreign policy Treaty of 1818 Americans were permitted to share the Newfoundland fisheries with Canada Northern boundary of the Louisiana territory was established at the 49th parallel Oregon territory was to be jointly occupied for 10 years

54 During War of 1812, Americans seized western Florida
1818 Andrew Jackson moved into Florida using as an excuse the presence of hostile Seminole Indians and runaway slaves Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819 Spain ceded Florida and Spanish claims to Oregon in exchange for America abandoning claims to Texas

55 Map 12.4 U.S.-British Boundary Settlement, 1818 Note that the United States gained
considerable territory by securing a treaty boundary rather than the natural boundary of the Missouri River watershed. The line of 498 was extended westward to the Pacific Ocean under the Treaty of 1846 with Britain (see p. 368). Map 12-4 p240

56 Map 12.5 The Southeast, 1810–1819 Map 12-5 p240

57 Andrew Jackson (1767–1845), by Jean François de
Vallée, 1815 This portrait of Jackson as a major general in the U.S. Army was painted by a French artist living in New Orleans. It is one of the earliest surviving portraits of Jackson and depicts him at a time when he was known for his stern discipline, iron will (“Old Hickory”), and good luck. p241

58 The Menace of Monarchy in America
Fear existed that European monarchies (Russia, Austria, Prussia, and France) would try to crush the newly free colonies in Latin America 1823 Britain wanted to join with America in warning European monarchies to keep out of Latin America Britain wanted to maintain its newly opened trade with the Latin American republics

59 President Monroe Thinking Globally Surrounded by his cabinet, the president is
depicted explaining the Monroe Doctrine. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams is the first on the left; Secretary of War John C. Calhoun is the third from the right. p242

60 The Monroe Doctrine 1823 In his annual message to Congress, Monroe warned the European powers against intervention in the Western Hemisphere Two basic features Non-colonization Non-intervention

61 Monroe’s Doctrine Appraised
The doctrine had little practical significance at the time It was an expression of America’s post-1812 nationalist spirit The U.S. did not have the military power to back it up (the British navy was, in fact, what stood between the Americas and the European powers) “While giving voice to a spirit of patriotism, it simultaneously deepened the illusion of isolationism. (Pageant, p.255)”

62 Map 12.6 The West and Northwest,
1818–1824 The British Hudson’s Bay Company moved to secure its claim to the Oregon Country in 1824, when it sent a heavily armed expedition led by Peter Skene Ogden into the Snake River country. In May 1825 Ogden’s party descended the Bear River “and found it discharged into a large Lake of 100 miles in length”—one of the first documented sightings by white explorers of the Great Salt Lake. (The mountain man Jim Bridger is usually credited with being the first white man to see the lake.) Map 12-6 p243

63 p245


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