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Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah aka Syrian Arab Republic.

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Presentation on theme: "Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah aka Syrian Arab Republic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah aka Syrian Arab Republic

2 Political map

3 History 2000 B.C. Earliest recorded records of Syrian civilization 636 A.D. Arab conquest of Syria and introduction of Islam 1516 A.D. – 1922 A.D. Ottoman Turk rule 1922 A.D. – 1946 A.D. French mandate 1946 A.D. – 1962 A.D. Dictatorship, Union with Egypt, and anarchy 1963 A.D. – Present Bath Party Dominance

4 CJ System in Brief Laws come from Islamic, Ottoman Turk, and French sources Government consists of executive, judicial, and legislative branches (in theory) Ruled by Bath party control, with broad presidential powers (in reality) Mainly concerned with state security, not crime

5 Crime Two categories: real crime and political crime Low rates of conviction for real crime Huge population of those convicted of or held for political crimes 1985: 187,944 convictions for violations of penal law; less than ¼ for real crimes

6 Legal System Based on Islamic Law (Shariah), civil law system, with special religious courts Constitution provides for freedom of speech, assembly, and religion Laws handed down from President and Bath Party (in reality) Under state of emergency (Hala al- Tawari) rule Provides for suspension of all rights

7 Judiciary Synthesis of Ottoman, French, and Islamic laws Based mostly on French legal traditions Religious courts try matters of personal status: marriage, divorce, adultery Three tiered court system: Court of Cassation, appeals courts, and courts of first instance High Judicial Council appoints justices; President presides over High Judicial Council and appoints members of High Judicial Council Judiciary forbidden to revoke laws popularly endorsed and sponsored by the President

8 Corrections Divided into criminal offenders and political prisoners Segregated into separate facilities Criminal offenders enjoy adequate treatment (food, water, shelter) but with torture Political offenders (over 4,000; mostly associated with non-Bathist parties or members of Muslim Brotherhood) may use bathroom twice a day at designated times, get cold shower once a week, and receive inadequate food, water, and almost no shelter (open roof, etc…) Capital punishment is common for political prisoners

9 Policing Divided between a Gendarmerie, or civil police, and the Mukhabarat, or state security Gendarmerie under authority of Minister of Interior; usually law abiding (i.e. no torture) Mukhabarat under authority of emergency governor (President); use torture, unlawful detention without trial, summary execution Gendarmerie paid poorly; Mukhabarat among the richest Syrians

10 Future Population growing more quickly than economy Government must reform CJ system if is to survive

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