ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 EST A large aperture 4-meter telescope to be built in the Canary Islands EST is promoted by EAST European Association for Solar Telescopes: a consortium formed by institutions from 15 European countries with the aim, among others, of undertaking the development of the European Solar Telescope, to keep Europe on the front line of Solar Physics. Countries represented in EAST
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 Countries represented in EAST Countries directly involved in the EST Design Phase Budget: 6.7 M€ FP-7 EC funding: 3.2 M€ 1 Feb 2008 - 30 June 2011 Project Coordinator: M. Collados (IAC) 29 partners plus 9 collaborating institutions
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 EST goal is to provide an answer to the following questions How does the magnetic field evolve and emerge to the surface ? How is energy transported from the photosphere to the chromosphere ? How is the energy released deposited in the upper atmosphere ? Why does the Sun have a hot chromosphere and a hot corona ? What causes the explosive events (flares, filament eruptions, CMEs) ?
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 Telescope and instrumentation key requirements EST must specialise in simultaneous spectropolarimetry of the photosphere and the chromosphere Must have superb optical quality, with very high throughput Must have integrated high-order AO and MCAO Must have spectrograph capabilities from blue to near-IR (with several simultaneous spectral regions) Must have narrow-band tunable filtergraphs from blue to near-IR, simultaneously accessible Must have complementary imaging channels to observe photospheric and chromospheric layers (G-Band, Hα,…)
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 Design baseline 4-meter diameter On-axis Gregorian configuration Alt-Az mount Simultaneous instrument stations (each with several wavelength channels) - Broad-band imager - Narrow-band tunable imager - Grating spectrograph MCAO integrated in the optical path
Diameter of the primary mirror: 4070 mm Diameter of the secondary mirror: 800 mm Spatial resolution on the solar disk: 30 km (goal 20 km)
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 D1 D4 75-25 25/75 NBNIR 1 (700-900 nm) NBNIR2 900-1100 nm) D2 NB1 (390-550 nm) BB1 CaII core BB3 H CaII IR SPvis SPNIR 30-70 10- 90 D3 NB2 (550-700 nm) NB3 (700-900 nm) Lower floor Upper floor Beam from telescope BB2 CaII wing NIR VIS BLUE GREEN-RED RED
Coordinator institution : IAC INFRA-2012-1.1.26 Research Infrastructures for High-Resolution Solar Physics Grant Agreement no. 312495 Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) Purpose: I3 combine in this call 1) Networking activities, 2) TransNational and Services activities 3) Joint Research activities.
SOLARNET : AIMS Integrating the major European infrastructures in the field of high- resolution solar physics Realise Trans-national Access to external European users Enhance and spread data acquisition and processing expertise to the Europe-wide community Increase the impact of high-resolution data by offering science-ready data and facilitating their retrieval and usage Encourage combination of space and ground-based data by providing unified access to pertinent data repositories
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 Pipelines GREGOR: GFPI, GRIS,BLISS SST: CRISP, TRIPPEL, CHROMIS THEMIS: MTR, TUNIS VTT: TESOS, LARS DST: IBIS, ROSA Data Compression Image Restoration Solar Virtual Observatory (SVO) Data reduction and Archives
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 SOLARNET : AIMS Foster synergies between different research communities by organising meetings where each presents state-of- the-art methodologies Train a new generation of solar researchers through setting up schools and a mobility programme
Develop prototypes for new-generation post-focus instruments Study local and non-local atmospheric turbulence, their impact on image quality, and ways to negate their effects Improve designs of future large European ground-and space- based solar telescopes SOLARNET : AIMS
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 SOLARNET: Advanced Instrumentation Development Four instruments to be developed: 1.Large diameter Etalon Development (100 – 300 mm) Several layouts are explored 1.Image slicer for 2D spectroscopy Design developed for EST has been adapted for GRIS@GREGOR 1.Microlens-fed spectrograph must be adapted and optimized for polarimetric measurements 2.Fast Imaging Polarimeter based on fast, low-noise pnCCD sensor
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 Adaptive Optics (AO) Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) Simulations and Tests Implementation of an AO prototype for THEMIS Development of an innovative heat rejecter prototype for GREGOR Atmospheric Seeing Characterization Application of CFD techniques for local seeing optimization Wavefront control
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 Synoptic Observations Solar Physics Research Network Group (SPRING) 4 working groups: Synoptic magnetic fields Solar seismology Transient events Solar awareness
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 Previous experience, limitations and advantages Ground-based telescopes: Wavelength range limited by Earth atmosphere absorption Radio observations (useful for instance to investigate flares/CMEs properties) not at the same resolution as optical observations (future: ALMA) Acquisition time interval severely limited by changes in seeing conditions Day/night constraints Higher angular resolution Possibility to repair, upgrade instruments Change of the target in real time Unique observations in the Hα line (patrol observations, but too low spatial resolution)
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 Previous experience, limitations and advantages Satellite Instruments: Telemetry and data transfer limitation Effects of energetic particles emitted during solar explosive events Instruments: it is not possible to upgrade or repair Lost of satellite control (see, e.g. SOHO) Limited time interval of satellite observations (10 - 15 y ?) Public release data Pipelines (for instance, Solar Software) almost immediately available Well organized data archives and repository
EST and ATST-DKIST have the advantage of much higher data return, but are limited to their vantage points on the Sun-Earth line. Depending on the orbital configuration, significant synergy can be achieved by combining Solar Orbiter’s remote-sensing data with either high-resolution and/or high-cadence co-spatial data from other observatories that provide additional spatial coverage Authors who use high resolution GB data very often “like” to put them in a wider context and therefore use also Sat data The opposite occurs less often (probably because an accessible archive does not yet exists or because the pipelines are not always available, but remember the SOLARNET goals and the work going on !!) Synergies, advantages of GB and Sat observations
Coordinated Observational Campaigns: A Challenge - Till now the target must be selected two days in advance: will it be possible to shorten this time interval ? - How about having the same time cadence in data acquisition ? - Flares issue
ESPM 14 Dublin 8-12 September 2014 The EST project is promoted by EAST (European Association for Solar Telescopes) The Design Phase has been financed by EC (29 partners: 14 scientific institutions and 15 industries) A new budget has been allocated to the EST-EAST community by EU: SOLARNET Synergies with ATST-DKIST, Solar Orbiter and other GB and Sat facilities are necessary in order to achieve a better knowledge of the Sun. EST website: http://www.iac.es/proyecto/ESThttp://www.iac.es/proyecto/EST SOLARNET website: Conclusions
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