Isolationism When America was founded, George Washington suggested to steer clear of all foreign alliances. Mainly so America would avoid the conflict in Europe Isolationism is A policy of non-involvement in world affairs.
New policy of Expansionism Expansionism was the idea of America expanding their territory from ocean to ocean. In 1890, the government announced the end of the frontier. By this time because of railroads, America now had settled both coasts. Many people still wanted more land
Matthew Perry and Japan In the mid 1800s, American merchants had profitable trade with China, and hoped to do the same with Japan Japan was isolated from the Western World (Europe, America). In 1853, America decided to send Matthew Perry on a Mission to Japan.
Talking with Japan Perry asked the Japanese to open their ports for trade with the U.S. He showed up with four warships The American show of force alarmed the Japanese, and they signed the Treaty of Kanagawa, and opened two ports to American ships.
Imperialism In Europe, the late 1800s and early 1900s were called the age of imperialism. Imperialism – Nations created large empires by exercising economic and political control over weaker nations The search for new markets and natural resources drove larger countries to bully smaller, undeveloped countries. Examples: Europe in Africa/Asia.
American Imperialism America believed they had a right to all the land in the Western Hemisphere. William Seward was the secretary of state who bought Alaska from Russia for 7.2 million dollars.
Seward shows the world Alaska was twice the size of Texas, and many newspapers made fun of the purchase calling it Sewards Ice Box and Polar Bear Garden Gold was discovered in the 1890s, and oil later in the 20 th century. It was not much of a folly anymore.
Other American Interests Latin America consists of Mexico, the Caribbean Islands, and all of South America The U.S. wanted to Dominate trade with Latin America. America established the Pan-American Union in This allowed America to share information with member Latin American nations and increase communication.
Section 2 Imperialism in the Pacific
Hawaii William Seward not only purchased Alaska, he set his sights on taking Hawaii. He first bought the Islands of Midway, which served as an important naval base. America had traded with Hawaii since 1790, which has 8 main islands and over 100 smaller islands.
King whos name I love to Say King Kamehameha I, unified the Islands, and set up the port of Honolulu. American and European diseases devastated the island, just like what happened to the Native Americans. Gradually, American missionaries and sugar planters took over the economy and politics of Hawaii.
High Taxes on Sugar Hawaii had a large sugar crop. America raised taxes on the sugar the the 1890s American Planters in Hawaii were outraged, and revolted, making Hawaii a territory of the U.S., without permission of the Hawaiian Government. Queen Liliuokalani resisted but was overthrown
Regret America quickly set up the naval base Pearl Harbor, and sent in warships and marines to defend Americans Remember, Hawaii was not American territory at this point.
Regret Ctd After the takeover, President Harrison signed the treaty to Annex Hawaii, or add it on to make it an official state. President Cleveland later called it disgraceful, because the native Hawaiians did not support the farmers revolt.
More Imperialism South of Hawaii was the Samoan Islands Americans signed a treaty with Samoa which gave them special trading rights and a port, which was on the way to Australia. Britain and Germany also secured trading rights
American Samoa Britain, Germany, and the U.S. signed a treaty dividing Samoa between them. There were no representatives from Samoa at the negotiations. Again, Imperialism is large empires, taking control of weaker countries, politically and economically.
China These islands were stepping stones to the greater prize, China. China was weak, due to war within itself, lack of industry and European powers tearing it apart By 1890, Japan and European nations had carved Spheres of Influence, or sections of China where Japan and European nations had special trading privileges.
An Open Door to China The U.S. wanted the profitable trade in China, however they could not force other foreign powers out of China Secretary of State John Hay, suggested an Open Door Policy. Where each foreign nation could trade in each others sphere of influence.
Boxer Rebellion Many Chinese did not like other nations taking advantage of their trade. A Chinese martial arts society, called the Boxers, led a rebellion against foreign devils that were in China.
Boxer Rebellion Ctd… Many were killed and trapped in the capital of Beijing, before foreign troops two months later broke the siege and defeated the boxers. A second open door policy came around, which respected Chinas borders. Other foreign powers accepted this due to the violence of the previous policy
Japan Japan needed more trade in order to expand their power. They ignored the open door policy. Japan wanted Manchuria, which was located in Northern China and had natural resources that Japan desperately needed to become industrial. Japan attacked a Russian fleet, and started the Russian- Japanese war.
Russo-Japanese War The two countries fought to a standstill a year later War marked the first time an Asian country was successful in a war against a European country Teddy Roosevelt met with the leaders in New Hampshire and worked out a peace treaty
Strained U.S./ Japanese Relations Roosevelt hoped the treaty would slow Japan in Asia, however Japan continued to get more powerful Japan gained control of Korea during the war, and with more natural resources became the strongest naval power in the Pacific.
Japan/U.S. Relations Japan continued to challenge the U.S. for power in the area. Back in the U.S., Japan felt that Japanese- Americans were being mistreated in San Francisco, when the board of education ordered all Japanese students be sent to separate schools. Roosevelt ordered that Japanese students return to school.
Japan/U.S. Relations In 1907 Roosevelt sent The Great White Fleet to the Pacific. These ships displayed Americas power to the world Japan was very impressed. By 1909, the U.S and Japan worked out many of their differences.
Section 3 The Spanish American War
It began in Cuba… Spain had ruled Cuba for centuries, despite numerous attempts at independence Jose Marti, a Cuban leader, fled to the U.S. for money, arms, and troops. He returned in 1885 when things got bad. Martis revolution led to terrible loses in human life and property.
War Fever Americans felt bad forinnocent Cubans being killed They called for the government to do something about it Presidents Cleveland and McKinley hoped things would end peacefully
Yellow Journalism Remember, Yellow Journalism was a sarcastic, and often false reporting. Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst competed over coverage of the situation in Cuba. Hearst told an artist, you furnish the pictures, and Ill furnish the war.
Remember the Maine Pressure rose on McKinley to take action. When rioting broke out in Havana, Cuba, McKinley sent the battleship Maine to protect American citizens. On February 15, 1898, an explosion erupted on the Maine, killing 260 officers and crew. American newspapers blamed the Spanish. Spain denied responsibility.
WAR!! After the Maine incident, McKinley demanded a truce between the Spanish and Cuba Spain agreed to some of the demands, but not all of them Congress and McKinley were not satisfied, and declared war on Spain on April 25 th 1898
Attacking the Philippines Then Commander of the Navy, Teddy Roosevelt, told Commodore George Dewey to be ready in case war broke out. When it did, America launched a surprise attack in the Philippines in Manila Bay, destroying the Spanish ships. The Philippine rebels aided the U.S troops and defeated the Spanish there, expecting that the U.S would grant them independence. This did not happen.
Fighting in Cuba The Americans trapped the Spanish in the harbor of Santiago. A battle ensued, with Americans having about 17,000 troops, nearly a quarter of them African American This inexperienced American army advanced on the Spanish
The Rough Riders Teddy Roosevelt resigned his position of assistant secretary of the Navy to lead the Rough Riders, a volunteer calvary group into battle. Americans captured San Juan Hill thanks to Roosevelt's unit. When the Spanish fleet tried to escape Cuba, it was completely destroyed
A Splendid little war Secretary of State John Hay called the war this. The end result was only 400 Americans dying in battle after the 4 month war. However, more than 2,000 people died of diseases such as malaria. African Americans who served faced discrimination among the soldiers.
Acquisitions The U.S Received: Cuba Guam Puerto Rico The Philippines (Cost 20 million)
Cuban Protectorate A protectorate is a country that is technically independent but actually in the control of another country. Congress granted Cuba independence in 1901, but passed clauses in their constitution known as the Platt Amendment This clause stated that Cuba could not make treaties with other nations, and set up a naval base for the United States at Guantanamo Bay.
Debate over the Philippines Many were upset, including people who were anti- imperialistic. Many believed it would cost to much to keep the army stationed there. Congress eventually won, and the Philippines became a territory of the United States.
Revolution Emilio Aguinaldos forces began a fight for independence from the U.S. More than 4,000 Americans died, and over 200,000 soldiers and civilians died. The Philippines did not receive their independence until 1946
Section 4 Latin American Policies
Panama The United States supported the building of the Panama Canal, which would open trade to the Pacific Ocean Roosevelt tried to buy the property to build the canal, however Colombia, who owned Panama at the time said no. Roosevelt referred to the Colombians as Bandits
Revolution in Panama Roosevelt encouraged Panama to revolt against Colombia. He sent a warship to aid them, and the next day Panama staged a revolt against Colombia. The U.S. immediately recognized Panamas independence, and two weeks later signed a deal that bought the small strip of land for the Canal to be built
The Panama Canal Although congress disapproved of the way Roosevelt handled the situation, Roosevelt himself was proud. He stated later, I took the canal zone and let congress debate.
Panama Canal Ctd… The Canal zone was extremely hot, muggy, and covered in mosquitoes carrying two deadly diseases, yellow fever and malaria. Colonel William Gorgas, an army doctor, directed the army to drain swamps, spray insecticides, destroy grassy marshes, and spread oil on pools of water to destroy mosquito breeding sites. He was successful.
Benefits of the Canal The canal improved costs by cutting nearly 7,000 miles of sea voyage from New York to San Francisco. The naval power of the U.S. increased as well, now that ships could go freely between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
Roosevelts Policy Roosevelt believed the U.S. should, Speak softly and carry a big stick. This meant that the U.S. should use military action to solve problems instead of threats He felt the world would fall into anarchy, or chaos and lawlessness, if America did not police the world.
Roosevelt Corollary This was an addition to the Monroe Doctrine that stated: America could intervene in affairs of Latin American Nations if the nations seemed unstable. This document was used to stop revolutions (Cuba 1906) and to take control of a countries finances (Dominican Republic)
Tafts policy Taft believed in Dollar Diplomacy which said the U.S could intervene in Latin America if business interests were threatened. The U.S. used this to build harbors, railroads, and businesses which improved life for both the U.S. and Latin America.
Relations with Mexico The U.S supported Mexican dictator Porfirio Diaz, who supported American business but was cruel to his people, killing many. After a series of revolutions in Mexico, President Wilson would not support the dictators, even though they helped American business
Moral Diplomacy Wilsons Moral Diplomacy stated that foreign policy was based on morals, not economic issues. Wilson supported rebel leaders by providing them with weapons to overthrow their dictator. When American sailors were arrested, Wilson invaded the port of Veracruz
Pancho Villa He was a rebel against the new Mexican government that the U.S supported Pancho Villa crossed the border and attacked and burned down the town of Columbus in New Mexico.
World War I ends the search The U.S spent years looking for Villa in Mexico, but he was hidden by the Mexican people. Americans gave up when war broke out in Europe, which took the full attention of the world.