212.2 IntroductionEvolution of quality definition from internal measures to customer valuePromotes a broader look at a company’s offerings and its customers.Questions/Issues:Why customers purchase?Why customers continue to purchase?Why customers defect from a company?What are their preferences and needs and how can they be satisfied?Which customers are profitable?Does the customer value low prices more than superior customer support services?Does the customer prefer next day delivery or lower prices?Does the customer prefer to purchase the item in a store that specializes in this type of item or from a large mega-store that provides one-stop shopping opportunities?
3Role of SCMAbility to respond to customer requirements one of the basic premises for SCMRelates to customer specific aspects such as delivery status or production statusSCM also impact prices by reducing costsDell, Wal-MartEDLP strategies
4Customer Value Defines the SCM SCM strategy determined by:type of products or services it offersvalue of various elements of this offering to the customer.Examples:If customers value one-stop shopping => carry a large number of products and optionsPersonal customization of products => flexible supply chainSupply chain needs to be considered in any product and sales strategySCM strategy could provide competitive advantages leading to increased customer value
512.2 The Dimensions of Customer Value Conformance to requirements.Product selection.Price and brand.Value-added services.Relationships and experiences.
6Conformance to Requirements Market Mediation:Ability to offer what the customer wants and needsCosts associated with the market mediation occur when there are differences between supply and demand.Supply>demand => inventory costs throughout the supply chainDemand>Supply=> lost sales and possibly market share.Functional ItemsProduct demand is predictableMarket mediation not a major issue.Fashion items or other high-variability itemsNature of demand can create large costs due to lost sales or excess inventory.Requires responsive supply chains
7Zara’s SCM StrategyIt keeps half of its production in house instead of outsourcing as is commonIt intentionally leaves extra capacity in its warehousesIt manufactures and produces in small batches rather than try to achieve economies of scaleIt manages all design, warehousing, distribution and logistics itself instead of using third partiesIt holds its retail stores to a rigid timetable for placing orders and receiving stock.It puts price tags on items before they are shipped rather than at each store.It leaves large empty areas in the stores and tolerates, even encourages stock-outs.
8Conformance to Requirements Built on Three Principles Closing the communication loopSupply chain is organized so it can track material and product in real time but also close the information loop both for hard data and anecdotal.Sticking to a rhythm across the supply chainCompany is willing to spend money on anything that will make its supply chain fast and responsive.Leveraging capital assets to increase supply chain flexibilityCompany uses the investment in production and distribution facilities to make the supply chain responsive to new and changing demand patterns.
9Product Selection Proliferation of product options Larger variety means greater problems with:Managing suppliesPredicting demandThree successful trends:Specializing in offering one type of product (Starbucks/Subway)Mega-stores that allow one-stop shopping for a large variety of products (Wal-Mart/Target)Mega-stores that specialize in one product area (Home Depot/Office Max/Staples)
10Similar Trends on the Internet Some sites offer a variety of productsOthers specialize only in a specific line of productsCombine virtual with physical storesDell with its physical stores to compete with AppleLong-Tail PhenomenonLack of physical or local restrictions allows retailers to focus and make revenue on the less popular items in their cataloguesOnline sites offer titles/items not carried by traditional retailers
11Long-Tail Phenomena for Rhapsody FIGURE 12-1: The Rhapsody data—2004 versus 2005
12Strategies to Cope with Large Variety Build-to-order model Configuration is determined only when the order comes in.Effective way to implement the push–pull strategy by employing the concept of postponementAmazon.comMoving from a push to a push-pull strategy
13Amazon.com Strategy Initial Years: Used Ingram Books. 1999:Established its own seven fulfillment centersToday, there are 16 fulfillment centers in the US.2001: Focus on improving distribution operations in a push towards profit.Improved its fulfillment costs to 9.8% in 2001 (Q4) down from 13.5% in 2000 (Q4)
14Several Initiatives Adopted in 2001 Improved sorting order and utilization of sophisticated packing machinesAllowed shipping of 35% more units with same number of workersUsed software to forecast purchasing patternsAllowed reduction of inventory levels by 18%Consolidated shipping of 40% goods into full trucksDriven directly into major citiesBypassing regional postal sorting facilitiesPartnered to sell goods for other companies such as Toys ‘R’ Us and TargetAdditional $225 million in revenueAllowed other sellers to offer used booksIncreased sales during the holiday season by 38%.Gross margins about 85%
15Other Issues 2006: 24 fulfillment centers (FCs) worldwide Two types of FCsSortable => capable of combining itemsNon-sortable => for larger items shipped separately.Increased offerings to 34 product categoriesSome fulfilled by Amazon and some by other merchants.Challenges on the pricing frontDiscounts nearly all books over $20 by 30%.Had much higher discounts before even on bestsellers2001: started to raise book prices5 - 10%Reverse the increases as sales fell.Keeps just one or two copies in its warehouseMake the title available to the whole countryRestock as quickly as customers buy books
16Strategies to Cope with Large Variety Larger Inventories at Major DCs Suitable for products with long manufacturing lead times, such as vehiclesDCs allow manufacturer to reduce inventory levels by taking advantage of risk poolingFactors to consider:Inventory costs of cars at the DCIs the manufacturer going to pay for the inventoryEqualizing small and large dealersNo difference between different dealersDifficult to see why large dealers would be interested in participating in such an arrangement
17Strategies to Cope with Large Variety Fixed Options Cover Most Requirements Honda offers a limited number of options on its cars.Dell offers few options for modems or software that can be installed on its machinesLarge product variety is not required in all casesMany grocery products28 varieties of toothpaste???
18Price and Brand Price cannot be a differential in many industries Companies like Dell and Wal-Mart use cost reduction strategies to improve profitBrand names become a guarantee for qualityPremium brands can ask for premium pricesSupply chain has to be more responsiveMay increase costs which may be offset by higher pricesPricing in services more difficultOpportunities for companies that can offer new servicesNot easily transformed to commodities
19Value-Added Services Additional services to improve profits Differentiate from competitionMore important now than before because:Increased commoditization of productsNeed to get closer to the customer.Increase in information technology capabilities that make this offering possible.Examples:B2B services offer additional services to increase revenueMost of IBM’s income today is from services
20Relationships and Experiences Build a relationship with the customersmakes it more difficult for customers to switch to another providerDell configures PCs and supports them for large customersManages the entire PC purchaseIncludes special custom featuresBecomes more difficult for the customer to switch to another vendor.
21One-to-One Enterprise with Peapod Online groceryPersonalized interface while shoppingCan create own virtual supermarketSave shopping lists and retrieve listsOpportunity to learn about its service:Asks: “How did we do on the last order?”Uses the relatively high response rate of 35%Institutes requested changes to its services
22Customer Experiences Beyond relationships Designing, promoting, and selling unique experiences to customersOffering distinct from customer service:An experience occurs when a company intentionally uses services as the stage, and goods as props, to engage individual customers in a way that creates memorable eventsExamples:Airline frequent flyer programs, theme parks, Saturn owner gatherings, Lexus weekend brunch and car wash events.
238 Steps to Customer Experience Create a compelling brand/distinct offering that customers can identify with.Deliver a seamless experience across channels and touch points.Care about customers and their outcomes.Measure what matters most to customersHone operational excellence.Value customers’ time.Place customer’s information requirements and needs at the core.Design to morph i.e. the ability to change practices based on customer requirements.
24Dimensions and Achieving Excellence Companies need to select their customer value goalsSupply chain, market segmentation, and skill sets required to succeed depend on this choice.Companies cannot excel along all these dimensionsA company needs to be dominating in one attribute, differentiate itself on another, and be adequate in all the rest.Examples:Wal-Mart stands out on price and secondarily in large brand selection.Target competes by emphasizing brand selection before price.Nike Stores emphasize experience first and product second.McDonald’s provides access first and service second.American Express emphasizes service first and access as a second attribute.
2512.3 Customer Value Measures Measures that start with the customer.Typical measures include service level and customer satisfaction.What are the basic measures of customer value?What are the supply chain performance measures?
26Service LevelTypical measure used to quantify a company’s market conformance.Usually related to the ability to satisfy a customer’s delivery dateDirect relationship between the ability to achieve a certain level of service and supply chain cost and performance.Demand variability and manufacturing and information lead times determine the amount of inventory that needs to be kept in the supply chain.
27Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction surveys used to measure sales department and personnel performanceAlso provides feedback for necessary improvements in products and services.However, reliance on customer satisfaction surveys can often be misleadingSurveys are easy to manipulateTypically measured at the selling pointNothing is said about retaining the customer.Measure customer loyaltyEasier to measure than customer satisfaction.Analyze customer repurchase patterns based on internal databases.
28Customer Defections Identifying such customers not an easy task Dissatisfied customers seldom cancel an account completelyGradually shift their spending, making a partial defection.
29SC Performance Measures SC performance affects the ability to provide customer valueNeed to develop independent criteria to measure supply chain performance.Presence of many partners in the process/requirement of a common language.Standardization initiatives such as the Supply Chain Council’s reference models.
30SCC and SCOR ModelSCC organized in 1996 by Pittiglio Rabin Todd & McGrath (PRTM) and AMR ResearchInitially included 69 voluntary member companies.About 1,000 corporate members world-wide and has established numerous international chapters.Supply Chain Operations Reference-Model (SCOR)Process reference modelAnalyzes the current state of a company’s processes and its goals,Quantifies operational performanceCompares it to benchmark data.Developed a set of metrics for supply chain performanceMembers are in the process of forming industry groups to collect best-practice information
31SCOR Level 1 Metrics Perspectives Metrics Measure Supply chain reliabilityOn-time deliveryOrder fulfillment lead timeFill ratePerfect order fulfillmentPercentageDaysFlexibility and responsivenessSupply chain response timeUpside production flexibilityExpensesSupply chain management costWarranty cost as percentage of revenueValue added per employeeDollarsAssets/utilizationTotal inventory days of supplyCash-to-cash cycle timeNet asset turnsTurns
32Overall Business Performance Metrics PRTM Survey Total supply chain management costsTotal cost to manage order processing, acquire materials, manage inventory, and manage supply chain finance and information systems.Leading companies have total costs between 4 and 5% of sales.Median performers spend 5 to 6% more.
33Overall Business Performance Metrics PRTM Survey Cash-to-cash cycle timeNumber of days between paying for raw materials and getting paid for productCalculated by inventory days of supply plus days of sales outstanding minus average payment period for material.Best in class have less than 30-days’ cycle time,Median performers can be up to 100 days.
34Overall Business Performance Metrics PRTM Survey Upside production flexibilityNumber of days required to achieve an unplanned, sustainable, 20 percent increase in production.Under two weeks for best in classLess than a week for some industries.
35Overall Business Performance Metrics PRTM Survey Delivery performance to requestPercentage of orders fulfilled on or before the customer’s requested date.Best-of-class performance is at least 94%Some industries approach 100%.Median performance ranges from 69% to 81%.
36Design Chain Operations Reference (DCOR) Model Framework that links business process, metrics, best practices and technology features into a unified structure to support communication among design chain partners and to improve the effectiveness of the extended supply chain.DCOR developed by the Business Process Management organization of Hewlett-Packard and conveyed to the Supply-Chain Council in 2004.Organized around the processes of Plan, Research, Design, Integrate and Amend.Spans product development, research and developmentDoes not attempt to describe every business process or activity.Focused on Product Refresh, New Product and New Technology
3712.4 IT and Customer ValueMany valuable benefits for customers and businesses.Three aspects:exchange of information between customers and businessesuse of information by companies to learn more about their customers so that they can better tailor their servicesenhanced business-to-business capabilities.
38Customer BenefitsOpening of corporate, government, and educational databases to the customer.Availability of uniform data access tools of the Internet.Innovations have had the effect of increasing customer value while reducing costs for the supplier of the information.Automated teller machines (ATMs)Voice mailInternetOpening of the information boundaries between customer and companyPart of the new customer value equationInformation is part of the product.
39Effects of the Internet Increased importance of intangiblesImportance of brand names and other intangiblesService capabilities or community experience in purchasing decisions.Increased ability to connect and disconnectIncreased customer expectationsGreater ability to compare and the ease of performing various transactionsTailored experienceAbility to provide each customer an individual experience is an important part of the Internet.
40Business BenefitsUse information captured in the supply chain to create new offerings for customers.“Sense and respond” to customers’ desires rather than simply make and sell products and services.Many forms of analyses:Sophisticated data mining methodsCorrelate purchasing patternsLearn about each individual customer by keeping detailed data of preferences and purchases.Method applied depends on the industry and business model.
41Business-to-Business Benefits e-marketplacesUsing the Internet to improve supply chain collaboration by providing demand information and production data to its suppliers.Outsource but maintain control tooVarious arrangements between manufacturers and distributors for sharing information on inventory that results in cost reductionMotivated by the risk-pooling conceptAllow manufacturers and distributors to reduce overall inventory by:sharing information about inventory in all locationsallowing any member of the channel to share the inventory.
42SUMMARYCreating customer value is the driving force behind a company’s goalsSupply chain management is one of the important means.Customer access to information about the availability of products and the status of orders and deliveries is becoming an essential capability.Adding services, relationships, and experiences differentiates company offerings in the marketIdentifying the appropriate customer value measure not an easy task.Ability to provide sophisticated customer interactions very different from the ability to manufacture and distribute products.No real customer value without a close relationship with customers.