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AS Level Physical Education Skill Acquisition Revision Guide

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Presentation on theme: "AS Level Physical Education Skill Acquisition Revision Guide"— Presentation transcript:

1 AS Level Physical Education Skill Acquisition Revision Guide

2 Ability and Skill ‘Abilities are enduring characteristics which underline a persons potential to acquire skill in one sport or another’

3 Ability and Skill Ability is something you are born with, it is innate. Abilities are enduring (long-lasting) characteristics which underlie a person's potential to acquire skill in one sport or another. To be skilful in one particular sport requires the person to have a specific profile of abilities.

4 Abilities perceptual ability - the ability to detect and use different types of stimuli conceptual ability - the ability to think through skills quickly gross abilities - the ability to move the larger parts of the body quickly fine abilities - the ability to perform delicate movements kinaesthetic ability - the ability to detect the positions of your limbs in space

5 Perceptual Motor Ability
Finger dexterity Reaction time Manual dexterity Response orientation Response integration Speed of movement Those that involve processing information and implementing movement

6 Gross Motor Ability Static Strength Dynamaic Flexibility
Stamina Explosive Strength Dynamic Strength Dynamaic Flexibility Trunk Strength Those that involve movement and often linked to fitness

7 Skill "The learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty, often with the minimum outlay of time or energy or both.“ Knapp Consistent Learned Goal Directed Characteristics of skill Economic Aesthetic Recognisable Fluent Efficient

8 What perceptual skills does the player on the ball need to be successful?

9 Types of Skill “ Skill is an organised, coordinated activity in relation to an object or situation which involves a whole chain of sensory, central and motor mechanisms” Welford Cognitive – skills that involve thought process and intellectual ability. What to do, which action to use and when! Perceptual – Skills that involve selecting, interpreting and making sense of information from our senses. Psych-motor – movement decided upon and controlled by the brain. Mixture of motor and perceptual.

10 Open/closed skills Open skills Closed skills Unpredictable environment
Decisions to be made No decisions - same skill

11 Self/externally paced skills
Self-paced skills Externally-paced skills Performer decides when to start Start determined by outside agency Performer decides speed of movements Speed of movement decided by others

12 Discrete/serial/ continuous skills
Discrete skills Continuous skills Serial skills Distinct beginning and end Series of discrete skills Repetitive - no beginning and end

13 Gross/fine skills Gross skills Fine skills Uses large muscle groups
Uses small muscle groups

14 Information processing
A simplified model Input – stimuli to sense organs Decide – what stimuli mean and what to do Output – motor programme runs muscles

15 3 stages to decision-making
Stimulus identification stage Decide what information represents Response selection stage Decide on an appropriate response Response programming stage Decide how to organise response

16 Stimulus identification
Expanded IP model Sense organs Stimulus identification Response selection Muscles -movement Response programming

17 Stimulus identification
Anything missing? Memory Senses Response selection Stimulus identification Response programming Movement Feedback

18 Input 3 main senses involved in sport 4 Eyes/vision/visual sense
Ears/hearing/auditory sense Touch/proprioception Body awareness / kinaesthetic sense

19 Three components/stages
Perception Three components/stages Detection Comparison Recognition

20 Idea of single channel hypothesis
Selective attention Idea of single channel hypothesis

21 Memory Short-term sensory storage Short-term memory Long-term memory

22 Characteristics STSS – lasts seconds; requires immediate attention or is lost STM – only attended information; limited capacity and duration; DCR occurs in STM; rehearsed information goes to LTM LTM – unlimited capacity; requires rehearsal, meaningfulness, speed of learning and overlearning to be remembered/retrieved

23 Expanded model of IP Long-term memory Short-term memory Feedback
Sense organs Stimulus Perception Decision Movement Feedback

24 Typical question (a) A basic information processing system consists of perception, translation and effector control. Explain what you understand by these terms, using appropriate examples from volleyball. (6 marks) (b) Selective attention is an important part of information processing. How can a coach improve a player’s selective attention? (3 marks)

25 Answer Perception – make sense of incoming information; e.g the ball has left the opposition server’s hand/equiv; Translation – decision making; E.g. the ball is at chest height I will use a set/volley/equiv; Effector control – motor programme/doing the movement; Send impulses to the muscular system in order for the movement to be carried out; E.g hands high/viewfinder/extend the legs. (1 mark for description and 1 mark for appropriate example) (d) Increase intensity of the stimulus/e.g’s; Motivate and arouse the performer; Highlight/ focus cues; Learn to ignore irrelevant stimulus;

26 Decision-making Response time Movement time Reaction time
Time taken from initiation of signal to completion of movement Response time Time taken from start of movement to completion of movement Movement time Time taken from initiation of signal to beginning of movement Reaction time

27 Reaction time Simple – single stimulus or single response
Choice – several stimuli or responses to be selected from Hick’s Law – more choices more time needed to decide

28 Reaction time - implications
Avoid repeating movements/same response – becomes SRT for opponent – easy to react to Choice RT – provide variety of responses – means opponent has to select from many stimuli Practice – develop as wide a range of actions as possible

29 Psychological refractory period
Unable to respond to second stimulus until first stimulus has been responded to – because of single channel Basis of ‘faking’ or ‘dummying’ Give a signal concerning intended movement, then move another way – opponent responds to first signal before responding to second signal, by which time you are long gone!

30 Typical question In team games such as basketball or netball, performers need to make rapid decisions. (i) Give an appropriate example from a team game of simple reaction time and choice reaction time. (2 marks) (ii) The ‘Psychological Refractory Period’ often occurs in team games. Explain, using an example of this from a team game, how and why it occurs. (3 marks)

31 Answer (i) SRT - movement to whistle/equiv; CRT - movements of own players on court and who to pass to/equiv; (ii) The use of a deception/fake/dummy/in a named team game situation/equiv; Only process one item of information at a time/equiv; Response to later information likely to be delayed/equiv; Due to responding to first stimulus.

32 Feedback 3 functions Change incorrect response
Reinforce correct response Motivate performer

33 Types of feedback Intrinsic Extrinsic Sourced from within
Knowledge of results Knowledge of performance Immediate/delayed Concurrent/terminal Sourced from within Sourced from outside Concerning end result of action Concerning movement pattern Before/after completion During/at end of action

34 Typical question Swimmers will experience different types of feedback both during and after a performance. (a) Knowledge of results and knowledge of performance are two types of feedback. Explain these two types of feedback. (2 marks) (b) What are the three main benefits of feedback to a swimmer? (3 marks) (c) What are the characteristics of ‘effective feedback’ for a swimmer? (4 marks)

35 Answer (a) KR – outcome of action; KP – information about movement/kinesthesis/feel of movement/intrinsic; (b) Correct errors/improve technique/highlight weaknesses; Reinforcement/illustrate success/highlight strengths; Motivation/self-confidence; (c) Process only limited amount of information/succinct/short; Clear information/accurate/correct/relevant/simple; Immediate; Individualised; Different forms – verbal and visual; Intrinsic; Terminal better for beginners/concurrent for elite; Positive for beginners/Negative for advanced;

36 Open loop theory Executive (decides) Effector (does it)

37 Motor programmes - Open loop theory
No feedback. Pre-planned actions. Explains fast, ‘ballistic’ movements Stored as executive programmes that simply run and cannot be adjusted

38 Closed loop theory Motor command Executive Effector Feedback

39 Adam’s Closed loop theory
Feedback involved. ‘Memory trace’ recalls previous correct responses and initiates movement ‘Perceptual trace’ as a model of correctness that is adjusted and strengthened through practice. Does not account for actions too fast for feedback Does not explain limits of memory

40 Schema theory Four relationships (schema) stored for every movement.
Initial conditions General motor programme Knowledge of results Sensory consequences

41 Schema theory Recall schema provides motor programme – 1 and 2
Recognition schema evaluates responses – 3 and 4

42 Typical question (a) In relation to skilled performance, what do you understand by the terms motor programme and subroutines? Give appropriate examples from a tennis serve. (3 marks) (b) Schmidt’s schema theory is based on four sources of information which are used to modify motor programmes. List the four sources of information. (4 marks) (c) How can a coach organise practices to enable a schema to develop? (3 marks)

43 Answer (a) Motor programme – Controls movement/set of instructions/made up of subroutines/plan of action stored in memory (long term)/equiv; Subroutines – Sequences of movement, which are performed automatically/isolated aspects of a movement/practised in parts/equiv; Grip/footwork/backward swing/forward swing/ball toss/contact with ball/follow through; (minimum of three examples for 1 mark) (b) (Knowledge of) initial conditions/set up/requirement of skills; (Knowledge of) response specifications/demands/what is needed; Sensory consequences/Kinesthesis/Knowledge of Performance/KP; Movement outcomes/Knowledge of Results/KR;

44 Answer (c) Practice to be varied/avoid blocked or massed practice/examples; Should include plenty of information; Should have feedback; Should be realistic to the game/activity; Should include transferable elements; Becoming more challenging/more difficult.

45 Answer (c) Practice to be varied/avoid blocked or massed practice/examples; Should include plenty of information; Should have feedback; Should be realistic to the game/activity; Should include transferable elements; Becoming more challenging/more difficult.

46 Answer (c) Practice to be varied/avoid blocked or massed practice/examples; Should include plenty of information; Should have feedback; Should be realistic to the game/activity; Should include transferable elements; Becoming more challenging/more difficult.

47 Learning A relatively permanent change in behaviour
Seen to have occurred in performance of skill Improvements in performance seen as a learning curve

48 Learning curve no improvement Performance deteriorates
Learning plateau Period of rapid improvement little early improvement

49 Causes of a learning plateau
Fatigue Loss of motivation/boredom Technical deficiencies

50 Preventing a learning plateau
If fatigued – Rest/recovery periods To motivate - Rewards/goals Limited skill - Change style/method of practice or isolate and correct faulty technique

51 Learning theories The production of a stimulus produces an appropriate response (associationist or S-R theories) Conditioning theories - link between stimulus and response (bond) strengthened by reinforcement Classical and operant conditioning

52 Reinforcement Positive reinforcement is praise
Increases probability of repeat of behaviour/success Strengthens S-R bond Negative reinforcement also encourages repeat of success But involves removal of negative/ unpleasant stimulus when desired response occurs - coach/crowd stop barracking

53 Punishment Punishment is used to stop repeat of undesired/unsuccessful behaviour/ attempt Inhibits S-R bond strengthening

54 Examples positive reinforcement – the games player makes an accurate pass (behaviour) and the teacher shouts ‘nice pass’ (reinforced) negative reinforcement – the teacher who constantly shouts from the touchline suddenly stops shouting; the players know that their behaviour must now be correct punishment - giving a red card for a foul in a game serves to prevent that behaviour happening again

55 Classical conditioning
Learn unconditioned response to conditioned stimulus e.g. Pavlov’s dogs Rare in sport Can be used to reduce anxiety prior to performance – relaxation through calming phrase and physical cue

56 Operant conditioning Trial and error learning - behaviour reinforced - success/praise motivates to repeat success Thorndike’s laws exercise - rehearse to strengthen bond effect - rewards strengthen bond readiness - performer able to do task

57 Operant conditioning Operant conditioning = trial and error learning
Based on S-R relationship Coach manipulates environment to achieve desired response (shaping) – target/feeder/conditions/etc Uses reinforcement to bring about desired response

58 Observational Learning
Copying/mimicing another's behaviour/action Requires learning to be: Attentive Capable of remembering (retention) Capable of performing (production) Willing to learn (motivation)

59 Cognitive theories Insight learning - concerned with understanding rather than linking S-R Work out what is happening - whole practice, rather than learning skills in isolation

60 Stages of Learning Cognitive – understanding nature of task; develop motor programme; requires demonstration from coach; feedback is extrinsic; many errors Associative – practice stage; less visual more proprioceptive; fewer but repetitive errors Autonomous – skill mastered; little conscious effort; processing used for strategies rather than skill

61 Transfer of Learning Positive - benefits Negative - hindrance
Bilateral – from one side to other Proactive – current skill helps future skill Retroactive – current skill improves past skill

62 Teaching Styles, Presentation of Practice, Types of Practice and Methods of Guidance

63 Teaching Styles Command Reciprocal Discovery Problem Solving

64 Command Teacher makes all the decisions with no input from the learners Clear instructions and objectives, large groups catered for, control and discipline maintained Possible lack of understanding, little social interaction, little creativity, limited individual feedback

65 Command Used when: Groups are large or undisciplined
Novice performers need to be taught recognised techniques Dangerous situations Complex skills

66 Reciprocal Style Most decisions made by teacher with some learner input Instructions and objectives are clear, social interaction skills are developed, some individual feedback received, self-confidence increased May be difficult for beginners, performers may lack communication skills, unable to analyse movement, difficult to monitor for teacher

67 Reciprocal Used when: Learners are more experienced
Simple skills are involved Limited danger is present Time is available

68 Discovery Teacher guides performer to find the correct movement by providing information, giving specific clues or asking questions Encourages creativity and decision making skills, responsibility for own learning, increased motivation and self confidence Time consuming, difficult for those who lack creativity, progress of large groups is difficult to monitor

69 Discovery Used when: Creativity is required
There is no right or wrong answer More experienced performers are involved

70 Problem Solving Problem set by teacher and solved by student. There is no right or wrong answer Encourages creativity and develops cognitive skills

71 Choose a style! Novice performer throwing javelin Novice performer developing a gym routine Experienced basketball players practicing free throws in a practice session Sixth from students rock climbing for the first time Year 9 students practicing the smash in badminton, for the first time, in a 50 minute lesson Year 9 students practicing the smash in badminton, for the third lesson in a series or four An outside coach coming in to take a kick boxing lesson at a club for the first time

72 What have you based you decision on?
Choose a style! What have you based you decision on?

73 Factors to consider Nature of performer – experience, stage of learning, age, gender, size of group Nature of task – open or closed skill, gross or fine, discrete serial or continuous, self or externally paced Experience – amount of knowledge, personality, relationship with group Environmental conditions – facilities, time available, purpose of the session

74 Presentation of practice
Whole Learning Part Learning Progressive Part Method Whole-Part-Whole Method

75 Whole learning Performer attempts the whole movement following instructions or demonstration Develop an awareness of entire movement and understand the relationship between different subroutines immediately Difficult to use with complex skills, difficult for novice performers, not ideal for dangerous skills

76 Whole Learning Ideally used when: Skill is discrete or ballistic
Subroutines lack meaning Performer is motivated Performer is experienced

77 Part Learning Performer attempts all sub routines before attempting skill as a whole Complex skills are broken down into subroutines, specific aspects of technique modified, develops confidence on completion It hinders timing of complete skill, reduces kinaesthetic awareness, transfer part-whole may not be effective, time consuming

78 Part Learning Ideally used when: The skill is complex
Skill involves long sequences Performer has limited attention span Inexperienced

79 Progressive Part Method
Subroutines linked (chaining) once each individual part is learned Complex skills introduced gradually, novice performers achieve quick success, development of understanding of subroutines, transfer to whole is easier Time consuming, too much focus on particular subroutines

80 Progressive Part Method
Ideally used when: Skill is complex, serial or dangerous Time is not a constraint Performer is inexperienced

81 Whole-Part-Whole Method
Performer attempts whole skill and then develops specific subroutines before completing the whole skill An overall feel for movement developed initially, success is ongoing as subroutines are developed Transfer form part to whole is difficult

82 Choose a method A novice athlete learning the triple jump Year 9 class learning how to head a football A premier rugby team learning a set tactical move A golfer practicing his tee shot An experienced fast bowler practicing his action An inexperienced cricketer learning a bowling technique A gymnastics floor routine A year 11 team practicing basketball lay ups A hockey flick An athlete working on their sprint start Mr Kirk learning a dance routine

83 Types of Practice Practice occurs after the presentation of practice
Coach to decide on type ensuring learning occurs, motivation is maintained and fatigue does not affect performance Four Types: Massed Distributed Variable Mental

84 Massed Ptractice Repeated practice with little or no recovery period between blocks Ideally used when: Skills are discrete Performer is motivated Performer is experienced High level of fitness Replication of fatigue in games is required Possible problems – boredom and fatigue

85 Distributed Practice Repeated practice followed by recovery period before repetition or new task Recovery period may involve other form of activity not just rest (mental practice or feedback) Ideally used when: The skill is new and complex The performer is a novice Low levels of motivation Low levels of fitness Short attention span Recovery period can lead to – de-motivation, loss of concentration and lack of discipline

86 Variable Practice Coach uses a mixture of massed and variable practice
Maintains interest levels and motivation Helps to limit the effects of fatigue when required

87 Mental Practice Cognitive rehearsal of skill without physical movement
Used before, during or after performance Internal – sees themselves from within (kinaesthetic feel) External – seeing themselves as if they were a spectator Creates mental image, reduces reaction time, improve anticipation and control arousal

88 Mental Rehearsal Ideally used when: Learning time needs to be reduced
Preparing for alternative situations or experiences Concentrate on specific aspects or the overall skill Arousal needs to be controlled Performer is injured Optimised by Quiet Location Encouraging successful outcomes Regular practice Use during recovery period

89 Methods of Guidance Guidance is used to develop movement patterns and reduce errors made in performance Guidance depends on the situation, nature of the task and ability of performer Types: Visual, Verbal, Manual and Mechanical

90 Visual Guidance Creating a mental picture through observation of demos, videos, pictures etc Can also be developed through modifying the playing area To optimise visual guidance: accurate demo, focus on key points, info relevant to age and ability and clear and realistic stimuli

91 Visual Guidance Advantages Disadvantages
Good for performers in the cognitive stage of learning Provides a clear idea of the movement pattern to be performed Specific cues can be highlighted Disadvantages De-motivation if the performer is unable to replicate the skill Can provide too much information for a novice Static forms of guidance soon loose their impact

92 Verbal Guidance Explaining the motor skill to be performed, understanding the requirements and feedback General or specific depending on ability To optimise visual guidance: clear and accurate info, limit the amount of information required, language and terminology relevant to age group, most effective with visual guidance

93 Visual Guidance Advantages Disadvantages
Good for all stages of learning if combined with other types of guidance Useful in the autonomous stage of learning Feedback can be given immediately either during or after the performance Focus the performers attention on specific cues when watching a demo Disadvantages De-motivation if unable to replicate the skill Overload of information may occur Difficulty in understanding, especially for novice performers Some movement may be difficult to explain

94 Manual Guidance Involves the performer being physically placed or supported into correct position To optimise manual guidance: avoid over use of kinaesthetic awareness will not develop, combine with verbal guidance and ensure movement pattern is correct

95 Manual Guidance Advantages Disadvantages
Good for all stages of learning especially novice Reduce fear and builds confidence Helps to reduce risks in some potentially dangerous situations Development of correct kinaesthetic awareness Disadvantages Performer becomes over reliant on help and support Lack of intrinsic feedback Difficult to learn for own mistakes and correct them independently Difficult in large groups

96 Mechanical Guidance Similar to manual but uses some form of device or support Trampolining and swimming use them

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