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Chapter 12. 12-1 The Freeway Driving Environment  Freeways Divided roadways with at least two lanes going in the same direction Built to maximize safety.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12. 12-1 The Freeway Driving Environment  Freeways Divided roadways with at least two lanes going in the same direction Built to maximize safety."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12

2 12-1 The Freeway Driving Environment  Freeways Divided roadways with at least two lanes going in the same direction Built to maximize safety at higher speeds ○ Lanes & shoulders are wider ○ Signs & bridge supports are clear of the roadway ○ Less time to react to an emergency situation Typically more crowded than an open highway Escape routes are limited

3 Interchanges  Used to allow traffic to enter, exit, or cross a freeway without interrupting the normal flow of traffic  Types of Interchanges: Cloverleaf Diamond Trumpet Directional

4 Types of Interchanges  Cloverleaf Interchange Two freeways intersect, with ramps allowing drivers to move from one to the other without having to stop or turn

5 Types of Interchanges  Diamond Interchange A freeway intersects a highway with less traffic Drivers must stop or yield before turning left or merging right into cross traffic

6 Types of Interchanges  Trumpet Interchange A freeway and highway form a “T” Drivers exiting the freeway merge on the highway after one direction of traffic crosses over or under the freeway

7 Types of Interchanges  Directional Interchange Several freeways and/or highways meet Traffic is channeled in various directions through a complicated series of elevated ramps

8 Scanning for Danger  Scan ahead  Pay attention to signs, signals, roadway markings  Increase following distance  Identify hazards before you get to them  Be on the lookout for speedsters, constant lane changers, tailgaters, etc.

9 Choosing a Lane  Depends on the volume and speed of traffic  Usually the center lanes are for through traffic  Left lane is for faster than normal traffic and for vehicles passing slower traffic  Right lane is for slower traffic or traffic preparing to exit Avoid driving in this lane – cars are trying to merge

10 Changing Lanes  Must be patient and cautious So many lanes and so many cars Drivers competing for the same space Openings in traffic can appear and disappear in seconds Only change one lane at a time Accidents can and will happen Accidentshappen

11 12-2 Entering Freeways  Three major parts of freeway entrance: On-Ramps ○ May go up or down to the freeway ○ Never back up on an on ramp ○ Scan for a gap from the on ramp to prepare to merge Acceleration Lane ○ A temporary lane that allows you to match speeds of the freeway before entering Merging Area ○ Space where the acceleration lane merges with the freeway ○ Make speed adjustments and steer gradually into the through lane ○ Always merge into the first lane of the freeway

12 12-3 Exiting Freeways  Smoother than entering More time to prepare Deceleration Lanes ○ Allow drivers exiting the freeway to adjust to slower speed conditions ○ Don’t slow down to enter That’s what the lane itself is for Off-Ramps ○ Speed limits will be posted ○ Will be short and have sharp curves

13 12-4 Other Dangers of Freeway Driving  “Weave” Lanes One of the most dangerous situations facing freeway drivers Sharing acceleration and deceleration lanes Occurs when an off-ramp is placed immediately after an on-ramp Vehicles share right-of-way Actively scan and communicate with other drivers SPACE CUSHION

14 12-4 Other Dangers on the Freeway  Double-Merge Lanes Separate lanes that stay separate throughout the entire merge Entering the freeway ○ From the inner lane Find and appropriate merging space with the through traffic Watch out for vehicles from the outer lane Exiting the freeway ○ Not as problematic, but be ready for drivers to make erratic changes May get stuck on the inner lane and cut across to exit

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16 12-4 Other Dangers on the Freeway  Express Lanes Special reversible lanes that go into and out of cities Make sure you know the direction of travel for that time of day

17 12-4 Other Dangers on the Freeway  Rush-Hour Traffic Freeways are designed for high-speed driving, but not the case with Rush-Hour Attempts to alleviate the problem ○ Road construction ○ Tollways ○ Commuter lanes ○ Carpool lanes ○ Metered on-ramps ○ Public transportation Can and will be frustrating and dangerous ○ If traffic is stopped in one lane and not the other Cars will move in and out of lanes Traveling at high and low speeds Don’t use the median or shoulder

18 12-4 Other Dangers on the Freeway  Tollways Also called turnpikes, toll expressways, or toll roads Can be connected to freeways and provide alternate routes Signs will be posted telling you which lane to get into Pay the toll at a toll booth ○ Usually located at exits or entrances to tollways ○ Three types of tollbooths Scan Machine-operated Attendant operated Approach with caution and allow plenty of time It helps to have exact change ready. If you don’t, people will get irritated


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