Presentation on theme: "Sports As a Reflection of Society"— Presentation transcript:
1Sports As a Reflection of Society Angela LumpkinUniversity of Kansas
2Three Goals of this Session To analyze the importance of and possibly challenge perceptions about the status of sport in American societyTo explore whether sports develop or reflect character and other societal valuesTo examine the impact of commercialized sports on values using several sociological factors, including race and genderTo answer this question: Do sports lead or reflect societal values?
3A Cheating Culture Pervades Society as It Condones Cheating on tests, income taxes, spouses, and bossesLying to gain advantageStealing from employers and othersWhy: Personal benefit, regardless of who may be adversely affected.
4The Pursuit of Fame and Fortune in Society The aspiration to get into the most prestigious universitiesThe quest for power and status by politiciansThe greed of corporate executives, lawyers, and accountantsThe emphasis is on “me first,” self-promotion, and a “winner-take-all” approach.Bernard Madoff
5Recent Examples of The Cheating Culture 2004 — Martha Stewart convicted of insider trading and sent to prison2005 — Bernie Ebbers, CEO of WorldCom, convicted of accounting and securities fraud2006 — Enron’s Kenneth Lay convicted of securities fraud, conspiracy, insider trading, and making false statements to auditors2008 — Bernard Madoff arrested for financial fraud in the largest Ponzi scheme ever2009 — Rod Blagojevich, governor of Illinois, ousted for his arrogant abuse of power2009 — Former Senator Tom Daschle failed to pay more than $128,000 in income taxes
6Recent Examples of The Cheating Culture in Sports 2001 — George O’Leary resigned as the head football coach at Notre Dame after it was found he had lied on his resume.2005 — Several baseball players lied to Congress about their use of performance-enhancing drugs.2007 — During their game, New England Patriots Coach Bill Belichick directed his staff to videotape the defensive signals of the New York Jets2008 — Helio Castroneves, a two-time winner of the Indianapolis 500, indicted for income tax evasion.2009 — Florida State University received several sanctions for a cheating scandal involving 61 athletes in 10 sports.
7Is there a pattern of behavior that shows that sports reflect societal values?
8Why Are Sports So Important in the United States? Enjoyable use of leisure timeEntertainmentSocial bondingWinning is rewardedAn enriching part of educationIncessant promotion and telecasting by the mediaPraised for teaching character and moral values
9Sports as Entertainment Can sports be defined as athletic competitions promoted through extravagant presentations for the purpose of entertaining audiences in person and electronically?Do sport journalists describe sports as entertainment in ways that reflect people’s cultural, economic, and moral values?
10Social Bonding while Cheering for our Favorite Teams Families schedule their lives and budgets around sports.Friends and families socialize in and around sporting eventsTailgating at football gamesSports barsFantasy leagues
11Winning Is Richly Rewarded Sports Illustrated’s Richest Athletes in 2008#1 Tiger Woods earned $127,902,706#3 LeBron James earned $40,455,000#6 Alex Rodriguez earned $35,000,000#9 Peyton Manning earned $30,500,000#11 Dale Earnhardt, Jr. earned $27,221,970
12Winning in Sports Brings Status and Monetary Rewards Millions are seeking after the elusive dream of “making it” as an athlete.
13National Championships for Young Athletes Age GroupGenderSponsoring OrganizationNational Championship6 years and underboys; girlsCallaway Golf (a golf equipment company)Callaway Junior World Golf Championship8 years and underAmateur Athletic UnionAmateur Athletic Union Basketball National ChampionshipsUnited States Tennis AssociationU.S. Open Junior Tennis Championships8-11 years with weight limitsboysPop Warner FootballJunior Pee Wee Pop Warner Super Bowl8-11 yearsgirlsPop Warner Cheer and DanceJunior Pee Wee Cheer and Dance Championships9 years and underAmateur Athletic Union Junior Olympic Swimming MeetUS Club SoccerYouth World SeriesYouth Basketball of AmericaYouth Basketball of America National Championships9-12 yearsLittle LeagueLittle League Baseball World SeriesLittle League Softball World Series10 years and underAmateur Athletic Union Girls Junior National Volleyball ChampionshipsBabe Ruth LeagueCal Ripken Baseball 10-Year-Old World Series
14What Is the Likelihood of Becoming an Olympic, Professional, Intercollegiate, or Interscholastic Athlete?US population — over 306 millionJust over 7 million high school athletesLess than 500,000 college athletesApproximately 10,000 professional athletesLess than 800 Olympic athletes
15Estimated Probability of Competing in Athletics beyond the High School Interscholastic Level (NCAA, 2007)Student-AthletesMen's BasketballWomen's BasketballFootballBaseballMen's Ice HockeyMen's SoccerHigh School Student Athletes546,335452,9291,071,775470,67136,263358,935High School Senior Student Athletes156,096129,408306,221134,47710,361102,553NCAA Student Athletes16,57115,09661,25228,7673,97319,793NCAA Freshman Roster Positions4,7354,31317,5018,2191,1355,655NCAA Senior Student Athletes3,6823,35513,6126,3938834,398NCAA Student Athletes Drafted44322506003376Percent High School to NCAA3.0%3.3%5.7%6.1%11.0%5.5%Percent NCAA to Professional1.2%1.0%1.8%9.4%3.7%1.7%Percent High School to Professional0.03%0.02%0.08%0.45%0.32%0.07%
16Do Sports Build Character? Athletes potentially can learnRespect for opponents, teammates, and officialsSelf-confidenceSelf-disciplineSportsmanshipTeamworkMental toughnessHow to win and lose with classLife skills and life lessons
17Goals of Sports High school athletes: Develop sports skills Broaden educational experiencesDevelop characterCollege athletes:Achieve their potential in sportsEnrich educational experiences“Going professional in something other than sports”Young athletes:Have funLearn sports skillsLearn life lessons of character
18Coaches and other Adults Can Teach, model, shape, and reinforce values like honesty, respect, and responsibilityHelp athletes learn to play by the letter and spirit of the rules — the epitome of sportsmanship
19Myths and Truths in Youth Sports (Farrey, 2008) Myth…The best athletes are those who work the hardest.The truth is…The elite often have innate, natural advantages.Myth…Early, focused skills training makes a Tiger roar.The truth is…In golf, sometimes; in most sports, no.Myth…America is the world’s athletics superpower.The truth is…We’re the fattest nation—and it all starts in preschool.Myth…Organized competition breeds success.The truth is…Unstructured play is often more valuable.Myth…Children want to win.The truth is…They do, but it means far more to adults.Myth…Athletic scholarships support amateurism.The truth is…The lure of a payoff turns peewees into mini-pros.Myth…The poor benefit the most from college sports.The truth is…Rich kids are far likelier to get roster spots.Myth…Grade-school travel teams identify future stars.The truth is…They reward early bloomers, leaving the rest behind.Myth…No national body coordinates grassroots sports.The truth is…The U.S. Olympic Committee is supposed to.Myth…Children inevitably find their best sport.The truth is…Most are never exposed to sports they might excel at.Myth…Money is pouring into youth sports.The truth is…It is, but not in the communities that need it most.Myth…Media coverage drives up participation.The truth is…Kids play a game — then they become fans.Myth…Grassroots hoops has gotten too professional.The truth is…The problem is it lacks a professional approach.Myth…Playing sports builds character.The truth is…It depends on who runs, and who surrounds, the team.
20Athletes Learn at an Early Age The importance of doing whatever it takes to help win, as theyCheat to gain competitive advantagesTaunt their opponents and use other gamesmanship ploysEngage in harmful behaviors personally and against opponentsDisplay poor sportsmanshipAre athletes who engage in such actions simply displaying the values that characterize families, peers, businesses, and society in general?
21Did These Really Happen? A T-ball coach offered a player $25 if he would hit an autistic teammate in the face so that child would not have to be played in a play-off game.A mother abandoned her daughter alongside an interstate highway after the daughter did not perform to the mother’s expectations in a soccer game.A father provided steroids and human growth hormones to his 13-year old son who was a world-ranked inline speed skater.
22Justify Actions by Saying Everyone else does it.This is the way the game is played.Do anything you can get by with until the official calls it.If you are not cheating, then you are not trying hard enough to win.
23Commercialized Sports Are often Characterized by ViolenceGamblingDrug abuseRacial discriminationGender discriminationAcademic abusesRecruiting abusesArms race
24V I O L E N C Tonya Harding’s cronies injured Nancy Kerrigan. Mitch Cozad, backup punter at Northern Colorado, convicted of assault for stabbing his rival’s kicking leg.A Massachusetts judge sentenced Thomas Junta to 6-10 years in state prison for the beating death of Michael Costin, in a fight after a youth hockey practice in which the sons of both men participated.
25Gambling Former MLB player Pete Rose Former NBA referee Tim Donaghy College basketball has been plagued with point-shaving scandals beginning in 1951 with 33 players from 7 colleges, in 1961 with 37 players from 22 colleges, Boston College in the 1970s, Tulane University in the 1980s, and Arizona State University and Northwestern University in the 1990s.
26Performance-Enhancing Drugs Baseball players like Barry BondsMarion Jones stripped of Olympic medals and sentenced to prison
27Racial Discrimination against African Americans in Sports Were subjected to racial taunts, discriminatory treatment, exclusion, and bigotryExceptional athletically and academically, a few males were the first to integrate sports.William Lewis, who played center-rush for Harvard University, was the first named an All-American in 1892 and 1893.Moses Walker, who played catcher for Oberlin College and the University of Michigan in , was the first to play at a Caucasian institution.
28Continued Racial Discrimination Historically Black colleges and universities and segregated leaguesSubjected to: withheld from games; violence; exclusion with “gentleman’s agreements;” stacking; and quotasJohn McClendonOklahoma State’s Wilbanks Smith viciously hit Drake’s Johnny Bright in the face with his fist.All-American Paul Robeson
29Confronting Racial Discrimination Succeeding against unbelievable oddsThe watershed event of the 1966 NCAA men’s basketball championship gameAthletes fighting for their rights, such as through boycotts and demanding equitable treatmentJesse OwensAlice CoachmanBill Garrett
30Academic Exploitation of African Americans in Sports Post-World War II, they were recruited mostly for their athletic skills.Segregated schools, non-college-preparatory curricula, and socio-economic factors led to poor academic preparation for college.Many majored in eligibility rather than obtained college degrees.Dexter Manley
31Heisman TrophyOf the 74 recipients since 1935, 27 have been African Americans (Archie Griffin counted twice); Ernie Davis (Syracuse) was first (1961).By decades, there were 3 African Americans in the 1960s, 7 in the 1970s, 8 in the 1980s, 7 in the 1990s, and 2 since 2000.Twenty-one (or 78%) of the African American winners were running backs. Out of the 47 Caucasians, 24 were quarterbacks; 3 of the African Americans played this position.An analysis of the recipients of the Heisman Trophy suggests these conclusions:African American football players were denied opportunities to compete at the highest competitive level between 1935 and 1960 or were deemed undeserving of this recognition.An African American who played running back had a much greater chance of being selected for this honor.During the 1970s through 1990s, the best college football player was most likely an African American.
32Relative to the Heisman Trophy, was football leading or reflecting society?
33College Basketball Players of the Year African American males have been selected for one or more of these awards over 81% of the 43 years.African American females have received at least one of these awards in all but five years since 1981.Males1966—Associated Press1969—Naismith1977—WoodenFemales1981—Wade1983—Naismith2004—Wooden
34Once given equal opportunities, African American males and females began to dominate college basketball.
35Gender Discrimination in Sports Historically, since sports have been the domain of male, females were largely excluded.Basketball — thought to be too vigorous for the “weaker sex”Courts divided into thirds fromHalf-court games until 1970 in collegesThe last sanctioned high school half-court game was played in 1995 in Oklahoma.
36Alternative Sports for Females Play days and sports days prevented the commercialized abuses of men’s athletics.In 1923, the Women’s Division of the National Amateur Athletic Federation opposed international competition, favored play days for girls and women, and advocated for “a sport for every girl, and every girl in a sport.”
37Expanded Opportunities in Sports The Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women beginning in 1971, and the organizations it replaced, set standards and policies for women’s athletics and offered national championships until 1982 when the NCAA took over women’s championships.1976 — NJCAA began national championships for females.1980 — NAIA began national championships for females.
38Title IX and Beyond Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 “…many Americans seemed to believe that new times required new laws, and most were unwilling to admit that the hundred-year-old equal protection clause afforded far greater protection that Title IX, perhaps because such an admission would indicate that the country and the courts had been violating the Constitution for more than a century. In the final analysis, however, Title IX gave women no new rights, but it inspired them to take advantage of those they already had.”*(*Fields, p. 161)
41Females in Intercollegiate Athletics in NCAA Institutions (Acosta & Carpenter, 2008) YearAverage Number of Sports for FemalesFemale Head Coaches of Women’s TeamsFemale Head Administrators of Women’s Programs1972not availableOver 90%19785.6158.2%19826.5952.4%19867.1550.6%15.2%19907.2447.3%15.9%19927.0948.3%16.8%19967.5347.7%18.5%20008.1445.6%17.8%20048.3244.1%20068.4542.4%18.6%20088.6542.8%21.3%
43Threats to Academic Integrity Some athletes masquerade as students while chasing the elusive dream of playing at the next level.Lies, dishonesty, and deceit have been used to keep athletes academically eligible.University of Georgia (1981)University of Minnesota (1999)University of Tennessee (2000)
44In Recruiting, Some Coaches Creatively violate recruiting rules to gain competitive advantages.Engage in cheating and lying to get the “blue chip” recruits.Choose to cheat because of the pressures to win.
45The Paradox of the Arms Race Entice recruits with the biggest and best facilitiesPay winning coaches millionsBob StoopsOklahoma football coachZero Sum Game
46Moral Justifications Used to Defend Unethical Actions in Sport and Society Try to make it seem that the unethical action is really ethical, such as by claiming there is no rule against it, no one will ever know, or everyone else does it.State that the action is not really unethical since no one was really harmed or no foul was called or penalty assessed.Argue that while a rule was violated, the situation along with the amount of good accomplished overshadowed the small amount of harm; that is, the end justifies the means.
47Sports Reflecting Societal Values Unethical behaviorsInfluence of moneyWinning at all costs
48Sports Are a Reflection of Societal Values While sports have been praised for leading positive societal changes, such as reducing discriminatory treatment of African Americans, today sports reflect society’s cheating culture.Commercialized sports, especially as popularized by the media, entertain Americans, many of whom are obsessed by winning and cheer for athletes and coaches who do whatever it takes to win.
50Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences Angela LumpkinDepartment of Health, Sport, and Exercise SciencesUniversity of KansasLawrence, KSTelephone:Thank-you for attending!
51ReferencesAcosta, V. R., & Carpenter, L. J. (2008). Women in intercollegiate sport. A longitudinal, national study thirty one year update. Retrieved November 15, 2008, fromFarrey, T. (2008). Game on: The all-American race to make champions of our children. New York: ESPN Books.Fields, S. K. (2005). Female gladiators: Gender, law, and contact sport in America. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
52ReferencesFrank, R. (2004). Challenging the myth: A review of the links among college athletic success, student quality, and donations (pp. 1-36). Miami, FL: Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics. Retrieved December 1, 2008, fromLumpkin, A. (in press). Critical events: Historical overview of minorities (men and women) in college sports. In D. Brooks & R. Althouse (Eds.). Racism in college athletics (3rd ed). Morgantown, WVA: Fitness Information Technology, Inc.
53ReferencesLumpkin, A. (in press). Modern sport ethics: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2007). Estimated probability of competing in athletics beyond the high school interscholastic level. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from