Presentation on theme: "GEOG 101: Day 12 Forestry Issues"— Presentation transcript:
1GEOG 101: Day 12 Forestry Issues News item: Monsanto, Starbucks and others are suing Vermont because of lawagainst GMOs
2Housekeeping Items I have one more editing mark I want to show you. The alternative mid-term assignments aredue todayI looked up debt-for-nature swaps. Accord-Ing to Wikipedia, “[s]ince the first swap occur-red between Conservation International and Bolivia in 1987, many national governments and conservation organizations have engaged in debt-for-nature swaps.” As of 2010, these totalled over $1 billion worldwide.Today, our topic is forestry and I think I’ll have to leave it to you to read about the environmental and social impacts of mining. Canadian mining companies have a fairly bad track record around the world, and we have a couple of films about that in the VIU Library – see Defensora, in particular.Solutions meetings will now be on Mondays from 11:00 to noon in Building 356, in Room 311.
3Three-party Swap Funding Table 1. Recorded DFNS Transactions by Country, Conservation Funds Generated, (Millions US$) – partial list (source: Wikipedia)CountryThree-party Swap FundingNon-US Bilateral and Multilateral Swap FundingUS Bilateral Swap FundingTotalArgentina$3.1Bangladesh$8.5Belize$9.0Bolivia$9.6$21.8$34.5Botswana$8.3Brazil$2.2Bulgaria$16.2Cameroon$25.0Chile$18.7Colombia$12.0$51.6$63.6Costa Rica$42.9$43.3$26.0$112.2Dominican Republic$0.6Ecuador$7.4$10.8$18.2Egypt$29.6El Salvador$6.0$55.2$61.2Ghana$1.1Guatemala$1.4$24.4$25.8Guinea Bissau$0.4Honduras$21.4Indonesia$30.0Jamaica$37.5$37.9Jordan$45.5B
4Housekeeping ItemsFor your assignments, try to follow the APA parenthetical style – see https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ and https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/.From Purdue OWL:“If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.They also have info on citing on-line sources as well.
5Housekeeping ItemsA professor at Ryerson has created a smartphone app that enables you to check out trees in parks and find out their species ID and their ecological value: parktrees.ca.Next Tuesday, in the class following this one, Sheila Malcolmson, the current chair of the Islands Trust Council, and likely the next MP for Nanaimo-Ladysmith, will be speaking on policy for sustainability, using her experience with the Trust over many years. She’s an excellent speaker.The Trust is the collection of islands in the Salish Sea that have some degree of self-government, and whose residents tend to be fairly environmentally aware. For a map of the area covered by its jurisdiction, see: file:///C:/Users/Owner/Desktop/Trust%20Area%20Map%20-%20Large%20Format.pdf#page=1&zoom=auto,-77,2163.
6Topics This Week – Forestry and Mining: Key Industries in B.C. How many people have family members who or have been involved in these industries, or who have themselves been involved?Why should we care about them in a course on environmental geography?What kinds of potential ecological impacts do they have?How are they linked into globalization?Who are the primary markets for wood products and minerals, including fossil fuels?
7Upon completing this chapter, you will be able to Describe the basic functional processes of trees and their role in biogeochemical cyclingSummarize the principal types of forest biomes, especially those indigenous to CanadaDescribe the ecological roles and economic contributions of forestsTrace the history and scale of forest loss and identify the current drivers of deforestationOutline the major methods of harvesting timberExplain the fundamentals of forest management, and identify forest management agencies in Canada and internationally
8Central Case: Battling over the last big trees at Clayoquot Sound 1993: The largest act of civil disobedience in Canadian historyProtestors blocked loggers from cutting ancient trees in Clayoquot Sound on Vancouver Island, British Columbia (anyone you know involved?), and over 800 were arrestedOld-growth forests = complex primary forests in which the trees are at least 150 years oldJobs depended on the timber industryIisaak, meaning “respect”, became a guiding principle for forestry in the areaVariable retention harvesting = logging selectively to retain a certain percentage and characteristics of the forest ecosystem
11The Forest and the Trees Forests cover about 31% of Earth’s land surface (and used to cover much more, though a few areas are reverting back)Provide habitat, maintain soil, air, and water quality, and play key roles in biogeochemical cycles
12Trees have several basic requirements For photosynthesis to occurAn amenable temperature (appropriate to the species)Air (with CO2)LightProper soil (with certain nutrients)Water (some tree species need more than others)10-12
13Trees have several basic requirements (cont’d) Macronutrients – required in large amountsMicronutrients – required in small amountsTranspiration – water loss from leaf surface, cools the plant as well as assisting in the movement of nutrientsWater drawn up through xylem by adhesion and cohesion (water being sucked out of the leaf pores by wind, thus creating a vacuum that enables more water to flow up the trunk channels)Useful to plant trees in close proximity to crops to make water more accessible to crops10-13
14There are three major groups of forest biomes Boreal forestHigh-latitude forestCold, dry climates with short growing seasonsTemperate forestMid-latitude forest (eastern forests or west-coast rainforests)Seasonal climate (winter season vs. summer growing season)Tropical forestEquatorial-latitude forestWet, tropical climate
16Forests grade into open wooded lands Drylands:Shrublands = wooded areas covered by shrubs and occasional taller trees (e.g. tundra)Savannah = open area fominated by grasses with widely scattered treesGrasslands = lands dominated by grasses and non-woody vegetation
17Canada is a steward for much of the world’s forest Canada has the highest amount of forested land per capita in the worldMore than 50% of Canada’s primary forest remains more or less intact
18Canada’s forests are varied 402 million hectares of forested and other wooded land is 25% of the world’s natural forest. For a fuller description, seeForests of the north:Boreal forest (taiga) is the largest forested region of CanadaEvery province except New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward IslandForests of the west:Forest regions: Subalpine, montane, coast, ColumbiaForests of the east:Forest regions: Deciduous (Carolinian), Great-Lakes-St. Lawrence (mixed deciduous & evergreen), Acadian (see
19Forests are ecologically valuable One of the richest ecosystems for biodiversityStructural complexity houses great biodiversitySome animals adapted for living in canopy, others specialize on the subcanopiesShrubs and groundcover plants of the understory are home to still more organismsFallen leaves and branches called litter, house still othersForest edge can be quite different from habitat in the forest core.
20Different storeys (layers) in the forest Canopy – upper level of leaves, woodland area has a more open canopy
21Trees provide ecosystem services of value to people A forest provides many ecosystem servicesStabilizes soil and prevents erosionSlows runoff, lessens flooding, purifies waterStores carbon, releases oxygen, moderates climateRegions that have lost their forest cover – where are they, and what are they subject to?-
23Forest products are economically valued Benefits: fuel, shelter, transportation (ships), paperHelped society achieve a high standard of livingSoftwood = timber harvested from coniferous treesHardwood = timber harvested from deciduous treesNTFPs = non-timber forest products such as medicinal, herbal, decorative and edible products (e.g. edible plants, traditional First Nations plants for healing and eating, mushrooms, salal, etc.)
24Timber is harvested by several methods Clearcutting method – all trees in an area are cut, leaving only stumpsMost cost-efficientGreatest impacts on forest ecosystemsMimics natural disturbances such as firesEnhances soil erosion andrun-off10-24
26Timber is harvested by several methods (cont’d) Selection systems = only select trees are cutSingle tree selection = widely spaced trees are cutGroup tree selection = small patches of trees are cutAll methods disturb habitat, but some more than othersChange forest structure and compositionIncrease erosion, siltation, runoff, flooding, landslides
27Plantation forestry has grown in North America Reforestation = planting of trees after loggingAfforestation = planting of trees where forested cover has not existed for some time (e.g. Oak Ridges Moraine on Ontario in ‘30s and ‘40s)Even-aged trees = all trees are the same ageMaximum sustainable yield = cutting trees shortly after they have gone through their fastest stage of growth, and trees often grow most quickly at intermediate ages
29Land conversion and Deforestation Deforestation = the clearing and loss of forestsPeople have cleared forests for millenniaClearing of land for farming one of the first significant human environmental impactsAlters landscapes and ecosystems (and hence habitat)
30The growth of Canada and the U. S The growth of Canada and the U.S. were fueled by land clearing and loggingDeforestation propelled growth throughout North AmericaCleared for farmingThen wood used to fuel furnaces of industryPrincipal cause of deforestation in Canada was agriculture; now it’slogging and mining.
31Agriculture is the major cause of conversion of forests and grasslands Agriculture covers more of the planet’s surface than forestPrincipal driver of land conversion today – examples?Swidden agriculture = small area of forest cleared and crops plantedSustains only one or two seasons of plantingSoil depleted quickly7 years required to replenish soil in original clearings to support crops or forestsis it sustainable? Seems to be a minor culprit
32Livestock graze one-fourth of Earth’s land surface Most cattle today raised in feedlots, but have traditionally been raised by grazing on open rangelandsGrazing can be sustainable if done carefully and at low intensityPoorly managed grazing impacts savannah and grassland ecosystemsRanchers and environmentalists have joined to preserve ranchland against development and urban sprawlHowever, some tropical rainforest is being converted to rangeland or single-crop plantations
33Bad practices and other pressures have led to deforestation Deforestation has altered the landscapes and ecosystems of much or our planetForest can be harvested sustainably but it hasn’t always happenedImpacts are greatest in tropical areas and in dryland regionsDeforestation also adds carbon dioxide to atmosphere because forests are carbon sinksFastest rates of deforestation are in tropical rainforests of Latin America, Africa, and to some degree Asia, affecting species such as orangutans10-33
35Deforestation is proceeding rapidly in many developing nations Uncut primary tropical forests still remain in many developing countriesAdvanced technology has allowed the exploitation of resources faster than in the pastOften these countries impose few or no restrictions on loggingOften timber is extracted by foreign corporations
36weighing the issuesLogging here or there?Imagine you are an environmental activist protesting a logging operation that is cutting old-growth trees near your hometown. If the protest is successful, the company will move to a developing country and cut its primary forest instead.Would you still protest the logging in your hometown?Would you pursue any other approaches?
38Forest Management Principles Forestry (silviculture) = a professional field of managing forests by balancing forests as ecosystems and as sources of wood productsHarvesting = the removal of material from the resourceShould not occur at a rate that exceeds the capability of the resource to replenish or regenerate itself (‘sustained yield’ – this is the theory, not necessarily the practice)
39Public forests in Canada are managed for many purposes Canadian Forest Service preserves timber on federal Crown landsProvincial crown land used for timber and non-timber forest products (mainly timber)Multiple use = policy where forests are to be managed for recreation, wildlife habitat, mineral extraction, and various other useswooded areas covered by shrubs and occasional taller trees (e.g. tundra)
40Public forests in Canada are managed for many purposes (cont’d) National Forest Strategy for (couldn’t find a reference to since 2005; may have been decentralized to provinces)Ecosystem-based managementBetter environmental, social, and economic sustainability of forest communities through legislation and policiesRecognizing rights of Aboriginal peoplesDiversification of markets for forest productsBetter skills and knowledge of forest practitionersEngaging Canadians in sustainability through urban forestsSupport private woodlots for forest sustainabilityNational forest reporting system
41Today some managers try to practice ecosystem-based management, but still much disagreement about what it isEcosystem-based management = managing the harvesting of resources to minimize impact on the ecosystems and ecological processesCarefully managing ecologically important areasProtecting some forested areasIt is challenging for managers to determine how to implement this type of managementEcosystems are complex, and our understanding of how they operate is limited
42Adaptive management evolves and improves Adaptive management = systematically testing different management approaches and aiming to improve methods based on experimentationMonitoring results and adjusting methods as neededA fusion of science and managementTime-consuming and complicatedA guiding principle for forest management in CanadaWest Arm Demonstration Forest ExperimentsDonna Creek Biodiversity ProjectGrizzly Bear Habitat Project
43Fire is a natural phenomenon in forests Many ecosystems depend on fireEcosystems dependent of fire are adversely affected by its suppressionGround fires = the litter layer itself burns, as opposed to crown firesCrown fires = the upper tree canopy is ignited10-43
44Fire policy has stirred controversy For over 100 years, all forest fires were suppressedBut many ecosystems depend on firesFire suppression allows woody accumulation, which produces kindling for future firesHousing development near forests and climate change will increase fire risk
45Fire policy has stirred controversy (cont’d) Prescribed (controlled) burns = burning areas of forests under carefully controlled conditionsEffectiveMay get out of controlImpeded by publicmisunderstanding andpolitical interferenceShould developmentallowed in fire-proneareas?
46Fire policy has stirred controversy (cont’d) Removal of dead trees following a natural disturbanceSeems logical, but is really destructiveSnags (standing dead trees) provide nesting cavities for countless animalsRemoving timber from recently burned areas increases erosion and soil damagePromotes future fires
47Sustainable forestry is gaining ground Sustainable forestry certification = only products produced sustainably can be certifiedInternational Organization for Standardization (ISO), Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have different standardsConsumers look for logos to buy sustainably produced timberCompanies such as Home Depot sell sustainable wood as a result of environmental campaignsEncourages better logging practices
48ConclusionForests and other terrestrial biomes provide crucial ecosystem services that have economic value as wellResources must be managed sustainably to avoid overexploitation and overharvestingThere are federal and regional agencies to oversee and manage publicly held land and natural resourcesResource management policies consider sustained yield, multiple use, timber production, recreation, wildlife habitat, and ecosystem integrityPublic support resulted in parks, wilderness areas and other reserves