Presentation on theme: "Child Development 3-12 Part 3: Ages 10 to 12 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service February 19, 2010 9:00-11:00 a.m. Debbie Richardson,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Child Development 3-12 Part 3: Ages 10 to 12 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service February 19, :00-11:00 a.m.Debbie Richardson, Ph.D.Parenting Assistant Extension SpecialistHuman Development & Family ScienceOklahoma State University
2 Introduction Welcome Centra Instructions Overview of In-service Resource Materials
3 In-Service ObjectiveExtension Educators will be able to describe growth, tasks, behaviors, and abilities of 10 to 12 year-old children including physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development.Latter part of middle childhoodLate school-agePreteensTweens – between childhood and teen yearsPre-adolescence or Early adolescence4th-6th grades
4 Domains of Development Physical EmotionalCognitive SocialCombine in an integrated, holistic fashion to yield the growing whole child.
6 Physical Development Girls (9-13 years) Boys (11-15 years) Growth spurt of 2-6” in one yearUnderarm & pubic hairBreast development, widening hips, narrowing waist, more fatOnset of menstruationGrowth spurt of up to 6” in one yearFacial, underarm, & pubic hairGrowth of genitalsDeepening of voiceMuscle developmentGreatest period of growth other than first 2 years of life.Growth and development varies enormously
7 Other Physical Changes Circulatory & respiratory systems - increasing strength, energy, staminaIncreasingly active sweat glands, may develop body odorMay develop acne or other skin problemsMay gain or lose weight, appear out of proportion or “gangly”, especially boysClumsiness & awkwardnessAches & painsMay tire easily & appear lazyAppetite may fluctuate sharplySensitivity to body image and very interested in learning about body changes
8 Motor Abilities & Skills Well coordinated in large and fine motor skillsBoth skill and stamina for gross motor activities such as biking, skating, team sportsLike physical challengesShould be able to perform a variety of movement combinationsDemonstrate coordination in a fluid environmentAdapt speed and direction when neededSome may show more talents – sports, music, etc.
9 Puberty Development into sexual maturity Hormones controlling physical development are activatedDevelop primary & secondary sex characteristicsBecome fertileIncreased sexual libidoPrimary characteristics - Organs that allow reproductionSecondary characteristics - External characteristics that signal maturation; related to but not directly involved in reproduction
10 Timing of PubertyGirls tend to experience pubertal changes earlier than boys by 24 months on averageInternal changes may begin:about age 7-8 in girls and up to about 13about age in boys up to about 13.5
11 Timing of Physical Maturation Points in physical development may be very different for individual youth between 10 and 15Being early or late developer can be stressful when compared to timing of their friendsEarly developersTends to be advantageous for boys – sports, social standingMore problematic for girls – body image, attention from others, lower self-esteem, adjustment to school transitions
12 Influences on Puberty Timing & Tempo Primary influence is one’s genesMost important external factors: nutrition & healthPuberty occurs earlier for children who have been well- nourished and without serious illnessesTends to occur earlier for kids growing up in conflict- ridden families and for females in father-absent homesExcessive exercise is associated with delays
13 The Evolving Brain Just prior to puberty… 2nd wave of overproduction of gray matter in the thinking part of the brain – neurons and their branch-like extensionsPredominantly in the frontal lobe – “executive functions” such as planning, impulse control, reasoningpossibly related to influence of surging hormonesthickening peaks at around age 11 in girls, 12 in boysthen gray matter actually thins some1st wave in early childhoodFrom “Teenage Brain: A work in Progress”, NIMHRefer to graphic view of teen brain
14 The Evolving BrainWhite matter – wire-like fibers that establish neurons’ long-distance connections between brain regions – thickens progressively from birthStriking growth spurts can be seen from ages 6-13 in areas connecting the brain regions specialized for language and understanding spatial relations (temporal and parietal lobes)This growth drops off sharply after age 12
15 Sleep Rapid growth and change requires enough rest Hormones may affect sleep needsNeed about 9 ½ - 10 hours sleep each day
17 Cognitive Development - Piaget Concrete Operations: 7-12 yrsLogical thoughtClassifying & ordering objects in a logical sequenceMake rational judgments and perform operations about concrete or observable phenomenaAbstract thinking evolving with limitationsBetter understanding of time and spaceReversibility – changes in forms and ordersDeductive reasoning –draw conclusions from informationRelativism –other’s thoughts & perspectives differ, can be wrong, thoughts/feelings may not reflect realityThought processes (operations) become organized and integrated with one another
18 ThinkingNo longer in just “here & now”, but still think more about the present than futureHigher level skills that allow thinking about ideas, anticipate and begin to see personal futureIncreasing attention span and concentrationMay begin to question old beliefs, explore new ones, develop strong beliefsGradual ability to apply learned concepts to new tasks
19 Thinking Can state their thoughts more clearly & want to be heard Criticize adultsEager to learn and master new skillsProud of doing things wellConcerned about personal capabilitiesFrequent interest in learning life skills (cooking, fixing things, etc.)Internalized standards of right and wrong to some degreeBegins to understand the motives behind the behavior of anotherTendency to be disorganized and forgetfulMoral thinking abilities not always reflected in behaviors
20 10 Year OldsStill memorize & recite without thinking deeply about a subjectComprehends multiple features of a problem even while solving itIncreasing ability to work independently – class assignments, homework, longer projects, more complex writing & mathDeveloping a conscience but not yet consistently able to tell right from wrong – relies upon adult to helpAware of time but needs help to plan time in a practical wayStill certain that own beliefs are correct and are universally shared by others
21 11-12 Year Olds Able to use logic in arguments Apply logic to specific, concrete situations and problemsAble to manipulate symbols dealing with abstract conceptsAble to combine oral, visual, and written material in reportsDecision-making skill improvesCategorizes information in order to make sense of itSummarizes information from a book in own wordsCan read more adult-oriented materials, particularly those about topics of specific interest
23 Psychosocial Development Erikson Industry vs. Inferiority: 7-11 years Busily learn to be competent and productive or feel inferior and unable to do anything well. Tries to develop a sense of self-worth by refining skills. Identity vs. Role Confusion: Adolescence Tries to figure out “who am I?” Establish sexual, ethnic, career identities or are confused about future roles.Struggle between 2 emotional states – one positive, the other negative – push and pull the individual creating tension and posing unique interpersonal problems.Industry vs. Inferiority – Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.The healthy developing child learns to master the more formal skills of life:Relating with peers according to rulesProgressing from free play to play that may be elaborately structured by rules and may demand formal teamworkMastering academic skillsThe child who successfully resolves earlier crises is trusting, autonomous, and full of initiative will learn easily enough to be industrious. Sense of work and accomplishment.Immobilized by inferiority, isMistrusting child will doubt the future. Shame and guilt-filled child will experience defeat and inferiority.
24 Changes that Influence Social & Emotional Development Biological/hormonal transformationsPsychological shifts that accompany emergence of sexualityIncreased capacity for abstract thinkingEducational/school transitionsShifting relationships with family and peersHeightened competition, social comparison, and self-assessmentShifting social roles and expectationsMore independence and unsupervised timeCoping with stresses of change
25 Self-Concept & Self-Esteem Developing self-esteem requires positive reinforcementImportant to be part of a groupTypically far less optimistic; self-concept regarding their abilities and expectations for success tend to declineSkills are not developing as rapidly as earlier in childhoodReceive more “failure feedback”Reflect on their performances, compare to peers, learn that current failures may be clues to future performancesSome kids experiencing more frustration and pessimism about their abilities may be hesitant to try new things with which they are unlikely to succeed at first
26 10 Year-Olds Emotionally direct, simple - less anxious & demanding More often good-natured; moodiness is short-lived and infrequentCan be very affectionate and concerned about othersContinues to enjoy crude humor and sillinessFears are lesseningEnjoys clubs & group activitiesSeeks approval for being “good” from significant peopleMay show interest in opposite sex but focus is still in small groups of same sexConfides constantly in a best friendRelates to peer group intensely & abides by group decisionsCan be fickle
27 11 & 12 Year-Olds May be tired, moody, anxious, and bicker Can be loud, rude, obnoxious; personal habits and manners take on less importanceLike to argue, yet can be cooperative & friendlyLike to take chances and defy rulesGreater urge for independenceFriends & groups are more importantMore turmoil with friendsStrong need to conformOpposite sex interests emerge (girls more so)Tend to avoid complicated tasksVery enthusiastic about likes and equally passionate about dislikes
28 Preteens in General Active & energetic Fluctuate between dependent child & independent pre-teenMaturity level may vary greatly among individualsMature one moment, immature the nextIncreasingly self-conscious & self-centeredWant to be like their friendsPeer pressure increasesWant to be “normal” – fear being differentLike one-on-one time with adultsMore modesty & privacyMost prefer activities away from homeAre often very “giggly”May develop their own code of behavior – music, language, dress, rules, etc.
29 Preteens in GeneralDevelop group to which they may show extreme loyaltyMay become experimenters and risk takersNeed guidance but are seeking independence and recognition as adultsWants parental assistance but may resist when offeredStrong opinionsHard on self and ultrasensitive to criticismMay experience sudden, dramatic, extreme emotions & emotional changesTends to conceal feelingsMay anger quickly; Can show sharp, violent temperShould be able to resolve conflicts and help others resolve conflicts in a positive mannerStrives to succeedUndergoing social conflicts – trying to please parents, friends, teachers all at the same timeAnger usually occurs when children encounter a situation they cannot control or which does not come out as they expected.Angered and frustrated by things that upset their routine or their planAnger is self-centeredMay be similar to toddlersAdults are a common target for anger as they seek to set and enforce limitsLikely to express anger verbally with sarcastic remarks and sulkinessNeed to be shown socially acceptable ways to express and vent their anger
30 Characteristics Implications Desire to learn adult skills and create useful productsInvolve in daily chores, teach skills (cooking, woodworking), arts/craftsPeer group & friends increasingly importantUnstructured time and safe place to “hang out”Want to plan their own free time; resent being told what to do by adultsInclude in planning from the startMay dislike being in a child care program and think they can take care of themselvesGive chance to contribute to decisions; use win-win problem-solving approachBegin expanding interests in community beyond home & schoolVisit various placesIncreasing ability to plan and work together in groupsProvide more complex long-range projectsFrom “Learning About Adolescent Development” Cornell Univ. ExtensionAlso see handout from Iowa State Extension
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