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Child Development 3-12 Part 3: Ages 10 to 12 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service February 19, 2010 9:00-11:00 a.m. Debbie Richardson,

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Presentation on theme: "Child Development 3-12 Part 3: Ages 10 to 12 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service February 19, 2010 9:00-11:00 a.m. Debbie Richardson,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Development 3-12 Part 3: Ages 10 to 12 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service February 19, :00-11:00 a.m. Debbie Richardson, Ph.D. Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University

2 Introduction Welcome Centra Instructions Overview of In-service
Resource Materials

3 In-Service Objective Extension Educators will be able to describe growth, tasks, behaviors, and abilities of 10 to 12 year-old children including physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development. Latter part of middle childhood Late school-age Preteens Tweens – between childhood and teen years Pre-adolescence or Early adolescence 4th-6th grades

4 Domains of Development
Physical Emotional Cognitive Social Combine in an integrated, holistic fashion to yield the growing whole child.

5 Physical Development Ages 10-12

6 Physical Development Girls (9-13 years) Boys (11-15 years)
Growth spurt of 2-6” in one year Underarm & pubic hair Breast development, widening hips, narrowing waist, more fat Onset of menstruation Growth spurt of up to 6” in one year Facial, underarm, & pubic hair Growth of genitals Deepening of voice Muscle development Greatest period of growth other than first 2 years of life. Growth and development varies enormously

7 Other Physical Changes
Circulatory & respiratory systems - increasing strength, energy, stamina Increasingly active sweat glands, may develop body odor May develop acne or other skin problems May gain or lose weight, appear out of proportion or “gangly”, especially boys Clumsiness & awkwardness Aches & pains May tire easily & appear lazy Appetite may fluctuate sharply Sensitivity to body image and very interested in learning about body changes

8 Motor Abilities & Skills
Well coordinated in large and fine motor skills Both skill and stamina for gross motor activities such as biking, skating, team sports Like physical challenges Should be able to perform a variety of movement combinations Demonstrate coordination in a fluid environment Adapt speed and direction when needed Some may show more talents – sports, music, etc.

9 Puberty Development into sexual maturity
Hormones controlling physical development are activated Develop primary & secondary sex characteristics Become fertile Increased sexual libido Primary characteristics - Organs that allow reproduction Secondary characteristics - External characteristics that signal maturation; related to but not directly involved in reproduction

10 Timing of Puberty Girls tend to experience pubertal changes earlier than boys by 24 months on average Internal changes may begin: about age 7-8 in girls and up to about 13 about age in boys up to about 13.5

11 Timing of Physical Maturation
Points in physical development may be very different for individual youth between 10 and 15 Being early or late developer can be stressful when compared to timing of their friends Early developers Tends to be advantageous for boys – sports, social standing More problematic for girls – body image, attention from others, lower self-esteem, adjustment to school transitions

12 Influences on Puberty Timing & Tempo
Primary influence is one’s genes Most important external factors: nutrition & health Puberty occurs earlier for children who have been well- nourished and without serious illnesses Tends to occur earlier for kids growing up in conflict- ridden families and for females in father-absent homes Excessive exercise is associated with delays

13 The Evolving Brain Just prior to puberty…
2nd wave of overproduction of gray matter in the thinking part of the brain – neurons and their branch-like extensions Predominantly in the frontal lobe – “executive functions” such as planning, impulse control, reasoning possibly related to influence of surging hormones thickening peaks at around age 11 in girls, 12 in boys then gray matter actually thins some 1st wave in early childhood From “Teenage Brain: A work in Progress”, NIMH Refer to graphic view of teen brain

14 The Evolving Brain White matter – wire-like fibers that establish neurons’ long-distance connections between brain regions – thickens progressively from birth Striking growth spurts can be seen from ages 6-13 in areas connecting the brain regions specialized for language and understanding spatial relations (temporal and parietal lobes) This growth drops off sharply after age 12

15 Sleep Rapid growth and change requires enough rest
Hormones may affect sleep needs Need about 9 ½ - 10 hours sleep each day

16 Cognitive Development
Ages 10-12

17 Cognitive Development - Piaget
Concrete Operations: 7-12 yrs Logical thought Classifying & ordering objects in a logical sequence Make rational judgments and perform operations about concrete or observable phenomena Abstract thinking evolving with limitations Better understanding of time and space Reversibility – changes in forms and orders Deductive reasoning –draw conclusions from information Relativism –other’s thoughts & perspectives differ, can be wrong, thoughts/feelings may not reflect reality Thought processes (operations) become organized and integrated with one another

18 Thinking No longer in just “here & now”, but still think more about the present than future Higher level skills that allow thinking about ideas, anticipate and begin to see personal future Increasing attention span and concentration May begin to question old beliefs, explore new ones, develop strong beliefs Gradual ability to apply learned concepts to new tasks

19 Thinking Can state their thoughts more clearly & want to be heard
Criticize adults Eager to learn and master new skills Proud of doing things well Concerned about personal capabilities Frequent interest in learning life skills (cooking, fixing things, etc.) Internalized standards of right and wrong to some degree Begins to understand the motives behind the behavior of another Tendency to be disorganized and forgetful Moral thinking abilities not always reflected in behaviors

20 10 Year Olds Still memorize & recite without thinking deeply about a subject Comprehends multiple features of a problem even while solving it Increasing ability to work independently – class assignments, homework, longer projects, more complex writing & math Developing a conscience but not yet consistently able to tell right from wrong – relies upon adult to help Aware of time but needs help to plan time in a practical way Still certain that own beliefs are correct and are universally shared by others

21 11-12 Year Olds Able to use logic in arguments
Apply logic to specific, concrete situations and problems Able to manipulate symbols dealing with abstract concepts Able to combine oral, visual, and written material in reports Decision-making skill improves Categorizes information in order to make sense of it Summarizes information from a book in own words Can read more adult-oriented materials, particularly those about topics of specific interest

22 Social & Emotional Development
Ages 10-12

23 Psychosocial Development Erikson
Industry vs. Inferiority: 7-11 years Busily learn to be competent and productive or feel inferior and unable to do anything well. Tries to develop a sense of self-worth by refining skills. Identity vs. Role Confusion: Adolescence Tries to figure out “who am I?” Establish sexual, ethnic, career identities or are confused about future roles. Struggle between 2 emotional states – one positive, the other negative – push and pull the individual creating tension and posing unique interpersonal problems. Industry vs. Inferiority – Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority. The healthy developing child learns to master the more formal skills of life: Relating with peers according to rules Progressing from free play to play that may be elaborately structured by rules and may demand formal teamwork Mastering academic skills The child who successfully resolves earlier crises is trusting, autonomous, and full of initiative will learn easily enough to be industrious. Sense of work and accomplishment. Immobilized by inferiority, is Mistrusting child will doubt the future. Shame and guilt-filled child will experience defeat and inferiority.

24 Changes that Influence Social & Emotional Development
Biological/hormonal transformations Psychological shifts that accompany emergence of sexuality Increased capacity for abstract thinking Educational/school transitions Shifting relationships with family and peers Heightened competition, social comparison, and self-assessment Shifting social roles and expectations More independence and unsupervised time Coping with stresses of change

25 Self-Concept & Self-Esteem
Developing self-esteem requires positive reinforcement Important to be part of a group Typically far less optimistic; self-concept regarding their abilities and expectations for success tend to decline Skills are not developing as rapidly as earlier in childhood Receive more “failure feedback” Reflect on their performances, compare to peers, learn that current failures may be clues to future performances Some kids experiencing more frustration and pessimism about their abilities may be hesitant to try new things with which they are unlikely to succeed at first

26 10 Year-Olds Emotionally direct, simple - less anxious & demanding
More often good-natured; moodiness is short-lived and infrequent Can be very affectionate and concerned about others Continues to enjoy crude humor and silliness Fears are lessening Enjoys clubs & group activities Seeks approval for being “good” from significant people May show interest in opposite sex but focus is still in small groups of same sex Confides constantly in a best friend Relates to peer group intensely & abides by group decisions Can be fickle

27 11 & 12 Year-Olds May be tired, moody, anxious, and bicker
Can be loud, rude, obnoxious; personal habits and manners take on less importance Like to argue, yet can be cooperative & friendly Like to take chances and defy rules Greater urge for independence Friends & groups are more important More turmoil with friends Strong need to conform Opposite sex interests emerge (girls more so) Tend to avoid complicated tasks Very enthusiastic about likes and equally passionate about dislikes

28 Preteens in General Active & energetic
Fluctuate between dependent child & independent pre-teen Maturity level may vary greatly among individuals Mature one moment, immature the next Increasingly self-conscious & self-centered Want to be like their friends Peer pressure increases Want to be “normal” – fear being different Like one-on-one time with adults More modesty & privacy Most prefer activities away from home Are often very “giggly” May develop their own code of behavior – music, language, dress, rules, etc.

29 Preteens in General Develop group to which they may show extreme loyalty May become experimenters and risk takers Need guidance but are seeking independence and recognition as adults Wants parental assistance but may resist when offered Strong opinions Hard on self and ultrasensitive to criticism May experience sudden, dramatic, extreme emotions & emotional changes Tends to conceal feelings May anger quickly; Can show sharp, violent temper Should be able to resolve conflicts and help others resolve conflicts in a positive manner Strives to succeed Undergoing social conflicts – trying to please parents, friends, teachers all at the same time Anger usually occurs when children encounter a situation they cannot control or which does not come out as they expected. Angered and frustrated by things that upset their routine or their plan Anger is self-centered May be similar to toddlers Adults are a common target for anger as they seek to set and enforce limits Likely to express anger verbally with sarcastic remarks and sulkiness Need to be shown socially acceptable ways to express and vent their anger

30 Characteristics Implications
Desire to learn adult skills and create useful products Involve in daily chores, teach skills (cooking, woodworking), arts/crafts Peer group & friends increasingly important Unstructured time and safe place to “hang out” Want to plan their own free time; resent being told what to do by adults Include in planning from the start May dislike being in a child care program and think they can take care of themselves Give chance to contribute to decisions; use win-win problem-solving approach Begin expanding interests in community beyond home & school Visit various places Increasing ability to plan and work together in groups Provide more complex long-range projects From “Learning About Adolescent Development” Cornell Univ. Extension Also see handout from Iowa State Extension

31 Related Issues Ages 10-12

32 Related Issues Home alone – self care Active but not overscheduled
Friends & friendships Sexuality Refer to resource materials

33 Discussion & Questions
What added to your knowledge? What are some key messages for parents? For child care providers? How might you use this information?

34 Wrap-Up In-service evaluation Follow-up
Review resource materials In-service evaluation Follow-up Next Session: Friday, Feb. 26, 9 – 11 am Part 4 - Influences, Risks, Resilience, & Resources

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