Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 12: On-the-Field Acute Care and Emergency Procedures.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 12: On-the-Field Acute Care and Emergency Procedures."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 12: On-the-Field Acute Care and Emergency Procedures

2 When injuries occur, while generally not life-threatening, they require prompt care Emergencies are unexpected occurrences that require immediate attention - time is a factor –First hour (“Golden hour”) is critical Mistakes in initial injury management can prolong the length of time required for rehabilitation or cause life- threatening situations to arise © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

3 Emergency Action Plan Primary concern is maintaining cardiovascular and CNS functioning Key to emergency aid is the initial evaluation of the injured patient Members of sports medicine team must at all times act reasonably and prudently Must have a prearranged plan that can be implemented on a moments notice © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

4 Issues plan should address –Separate plans should be developed for each facility Outline personnel and role Identify necessary equipment –Established equipment and helmet removal policies and procedures –Availability of phones and access to 911 –Athletic trainer should be familiar with community based emergency health care delivery plan Be aware of communication, transportation, treatment policies © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

5 –Community based care (continued) Individual calling medical personnel must relay the following: 1) type of emergency 2) suspected injury 3) present condition 4) current assistance 5) location of phone being used 6) location of emergency and 7) building limitations –Keys to gates/locks must be easily accessible –Key facility and school administrators must be aware of emergency action plans and be aware of specific roles – should be rehearsed –Individual should be assigned to accompany patient to hospital –Plans should also be in place for other game personnel (coaches, referees, spectators) © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

6 Baseball Softball Soccer Football Basketball Gymnastics Track/XC Tennis Volleyball Wrestling EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN (EAP)

7 Athletic trainers in clinic, hospital or industrial settings should also have EAP’s in place –In hospital setting it is likely that a plan is established – should be familiar with it –In clinic and corporate settings protocols similar to aforementioned should be followed. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

8 Cooperation between Emergency Care Providers Cooperation and professionalism is a must –Athletic trainer generally first to arrive on scene of emergency, has more training and experience transporting athlete than physician –EMT has final say in transportation, athletic trainer assumes assistive role To avoid problems, all individuals involved in plan should practice to familiarize themselves with all procedures (including equipment management) © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

9 Parent Notification When patient is a minor, athletic trainer should try to obtain consent from parent prior to emergency treatment Consent indicates that parent is aware of situation, is aware of what the athletic trainer wants to do, and parental permission is granted to treat specific condition When unobtainable, predetermined wishes of parent (provided at start of school year) are enacted With no informed consent, consent implied on part of patient to save life © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

10 Principles of On-the-Field Injury Assessment Appropriate acute care cannot be provided without a systematic assessment occurring on the playing field first On-field assessment –Determine nature of injury –Provides information regarding direction of treatment –Divided into primary and secondary survey © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

11 Figure 12-1 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

12 Primary survey –Performed initially to establish presence of life-threatening condition –Airway, breathing, circulation, shock and severe bleeding –Used to correct life-threatening conditions Secondary survey –Life-threatening condition ruled out –Gather specific information about injury –Assess vital signs and perform more detailed evaluation of conditions that do not pose life-threatening consequences © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

13 Primary Survey Life threatening injuries take precedents –Those injuries requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation, profuse bleeding and shock –Level of consciousness must also be assessed Emergency Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation –Evaluate to determine need –Should be certified through American Heart Association, American Red Cross or National Safety Council © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

14 Dealing with Unconscious Patient Provides great dilemma relative to treatment Must be considered to have life-threatening condition –Note body position and level of consciousness –Check and establish airway, breathing, circulation (ABC) –Assume neck and spine injury –Remove helmet only after neck and spine injury is ruled out (facemask removal will be required in the event of CPR) © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

15 –With patient supine and not breathing, ABC’s should be established immediately –If patient unconscious and breathing, nothing should be done until consciousness resumes –If prone and not breathing, log roll and begin CPR immediately –If prone and breathing, nothing should be done until consciousness resumes --then carefully log roll and continue to monitor ABC’s –Life support should be monitored and maintained until emergency personnel arrive –Once stabilized, a secondary survey should be performed © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

16 Overview of Emergency Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. A careful evaluation should be performed to determine if CPR is necessary Individuals should be certified/recertified routinely in CPR –American Heart Association, American Red Cross, National Safety Council

17 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Check-Call-Care –Check the scene; identify others to assist –Call 911 –Care should be initiated –Time is critical for the patient needing CPR

18 Equipment Considerations –Equipment may compromise lifesaving efforts but removal may compromise situation further –Facemask should be removed w/ a combination of electric screwdriver and clip cutters (Anvil Pruner, Trainer’s Angel, FM Extractor) –Use of pocket mask/barrier mandated by OSHA during CPR to avoid exposure to bloodborne pathogens –Shoulder pads and helmet must either both come off or both remain in place –Removal should occur if: 1) Head is not secure, 2) airway can’t be controlled, 3) facemask can’t be removed in reasonable amount of time, 4)helmet prevents immobilization © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

19 Figure 12-3 & 4

20 Establish Unresponsiveness –Ask athlete “Are you okay?” and gently tap –If no response, EMS should be activated and positioning of body should be noted and adjusted in the event CPR is necessary –A patient that is breathing in a prone or side lying position should be placed in a recovery position –If in a position other than supine the patient should be carefully log rolled as a unit to limit cervical motion © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

21 Opening the Airway Head-tilt, chin lift method Push down on the forehead and lifting the jaw moves the tongue from the back of the throat Figure 12-7A © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

22 Modified technique can be used when neck injury is suspected Modified jaw thrust maneuver Not always effective and should be utilized by trained personnel Figure 12-7B © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

23 Establishing Breathing Look, listen and feel While maintaining pressure on forehead, pinch nose, hold head back OSHA has mandated use of barrier shield by AT’s to minimize transmission of bloodborne pathogens Take deep breath, and create seal around lips and perform 2 slow breaths (raise chest 1.5 - 2”) © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Figure 12-8

24 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. If breath does not go in, re-tilt and ventilate If airway continues to be obstructed, perform 30 chest compression and look for object Repeat until ventilation occurs If available, use bag/valve mask for respiration Figure 12-9

25 Administering Supplemental Oxygen May prove to be critical in treating severe injury or illness Requires the use of bag-valve mask and pressurized container of oxygen Canister is green with yellow oxygen label Training is required Provides patient with a significantly high concentration of oxygen (up to 90%) Deliver at a rate of 10-15 liters/minute © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

26 Figure 12-10

27 Establishing Circulation Locate carotid artery and palpate pulse while maintaining head tilt position If available, the AED should be used ASAP If no AED is available and there are no signs of circulation chest compressions should be given after 2 rescue breaths Maintain an open airway Place heel of hand, closest to head on sternum between the nipples © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

28 Place other hand on top with fingers parallel Keep elbows locked with shoulders directly above patient Compress chest 2-2.5” (30 times per 2 breaths) After 5 cycles reassess pulse (if not present continue) © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Figure 12-11 & 12

29 Compressions should occur at a rate of 100 per minute In children, compressions should occur to depth of 1.5-2” In 2008, American Heart Association proposed Hands-Only CPR in instances where individual collapses unexpectedly, is unresponsive and is not breathing –Rescuer calls 911 and begins compressions –Continues until rescuers with AED arrive © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

30 Using an Automatic External Defibrillator (AED) Device that evaluates heart rhythms of victims experiencing cardiac arrest Can deliver electrical charge to the heart Fully automated - minimal training required Maintenance is minimal for unit True public access defibrillation –Anyone with knowledge of AED can utilize –Some states require formal training, in others individuals can utilize AED in good faith attempt to save life of victim in cardiac arrest © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

31 Most can be trained to use AED in an hour Requires trained individual to follow instructions regarding breaths and chest compression Electrodes are placed at the left apex and right base of chest - when turned on, machine indicates if and when defibrillation necessary Patient should not be on metal or wet surface during use © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

32 Obstructed Airway Management Choking is a possibility in many activities Mouth pieces, broken dental work, tongue, gum, blood clots from head and facial trauma, and vomit can obstruct the airway When obstructed individual cannot breath, speak, or cough and may become cyanotic The Heimlich maneuver (abdominal thrusts) can be used to clear the airway © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

33 Give 5 back blows with the palm of the hand between the shoulder blades Stand behind patient with one fist against the body and other over top just below the xiphoid process Provide forceful thrusts to abdomen (up and in) until obstruction is clear © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Figure 12-14

34 If patient becomes unconscious, assist to the ground, open airway and attempt to ventilate. If airway remains obstructed, re-tilt and re- ventilate If ventilation fails, perform 30 chest compressions and finger sweep to clear obstruction –Be sure not to push object in further with sweep Repeat cycle until air goes in When athlete begins to breath on own, place in comfortable recovery position while lying on their side © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

35 Control of Hemorrhage Abnormal discharge of blood Arterial, venous, capillary, internal or external bleeding –Venous - dark red with continuous flow –Capillary - exudes from tissue and is reddish –Arterial - flows in spurts and is bright red Universal precautions must be taken to reduce risk of bloodborne pathogens exposure © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

36 External Bleeding Stems from skin wounds, abrasions, incisions, lacerations, punctures, avulsions or amputations Direct pressure –Firm pressure (hand and sterile gauze) placed directly over site of injury against the bone Elevation –Reduces hydrostatic pressure and facilitates venous and lymphatic drainage - slows bleeding Pressure Points –Points on either side of body where direct pressure is applied to slow bleeding © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

37 Figure 12-17

38 Internal Hemorrhage Invisible unless manifested through body opening, X-ray or other diagnostic techniques Can occur beneath skin (bruise) or contusion, intramuscularly or in joint with little danger Bleeding within body cavity could result in life and death situation –If suspected, monitor blood pressure Difficult to detect and must be hospitalized for treatment Could lead to shock if not treated accordingly © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

39 Shock Generally occurs with severe bleeding, fracture, or internal injuries Result of decrease in blood available in circulatory system –Vascular system loses capacity to maintain fluid portion of blood due to vessel dilation, and disruption of osmotic balance Movement of blood cells slows, decreasing oxygen transport to the body © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

40 Extreme fatigue, dehydration, exposure to heat or cold and illness could predispose patient to shock Several types of shock –Hypovolemic - decreased blood volume resulting in poor oxygen transport –Respiratory - lungs unable to supply enough oxygen to circulating blood (may be the result of pneumothorax) –Neurogenic - caused by general vessel dilation which does not allow typical 6 liters of blood to fill system, decreasing oxygen transport –Cardiogenic - inability of heart to pump enough blood © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

41 –Psychogenic - syncope or fainting caused by temporary dilation of vessels reducing blood flow to the brain –Septic - result of bacterial infection where toxins cause smaller vessels to dilate –Anaphylactic - result of severe allergic reaction –Metabolic - occurs when illness goes untreated (diabetes) or when extensive fluid loss occurs Signs and Symptoms –Moist, pale, cold, clammy skin –Weak rapid pulse, increasing shallow respiration decreased blood pressure –Urinary retention and fecal incontinence –Irritability or excitement, and potentially thirst © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

42 Management –Maintain core body temperature –Elevate feet and legs 8-12” above heart *Positioning may need to be modified due to injury –Keep patient calm as psychological factors could lead to or compound reaction to life threatening condition –Limit onlookers and spectators –Reassure the patient –Do not give anything by mouth until instructed by physician © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

43 Secondary Survey Once patient is deemed stable secondary survey can begin Assessment of vital signs –Pulse - direct extension of heart function Normal is 60-80 beats per minute (athlete’s may be slightly lower) Child’s pulse is generally 80-100 bpm Rapid and weak could indicate shock, bleeding, diabetic coma or heat exhaustion Rapid and strong could indicate heatstroke, fright Strong and slow indicates skull fx or stroke No pulse = cardiac arrest or death © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

44 –State of Consciousness Must always be assessed Alertness and awareness of environment, as well as response relative to vocal stimulation Head injury, heat stroke, diabetic coma can alter athlete’s level of consciousness Can be assessed using a variety of scales AVPU scale assesses the following areas –Alertness, verbal (responding to voice), pain (responds to painful stimulus), unresponsive (no response to pain) ACDU scale = –Alert –Confused –Drowsy –Unresponsive © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

45 –Respiration - 12 bpm or 20-25 for children Shallow - shock Irregular or gasping - cardiac compromise Frothy w/ blood - chest injury Must assess movement of air through mouth and nose –Blood Pressure Measured w/ sphygmomanometer indicating arterial pressure Systolic blood pressure is pressure created by ventricle contraction (normal = 115-120 mm Hg) Diastolic pressure is residual pressure present between beats (normal = 75-80 mm Hg) Females are usually 8-10 mm Hg less © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

46 Above 140 mm Hg may be high and below 110 may be low for systolic Diastolic Should stay between 60 and 85 mm Hg Must inflate cuff above antecubital fossa (up to 200 mm Hg) Slowly deflate cuff listening for first beating sound (systolic) and final sound (diastolic) with stethoscope –Temperature Normal is 98.6 o F Measure with thermometer in mouth, under armpit, against tympanic membrane Core temperature is best measured rectally Changes in temperature can be reflected in skin temperature Digital oral thermometers are also reasonably accurate © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

47 Temperature changes can be the result of disease, cold exposure, pain, fear, nervousness Lowered temperature is often accompanied by chills, teeth chattering, blue lips, goose bumps and pale skin –Skin Color Can be an indicator of health Red - Elevated temp, heat stroke, or high blood pressure White - insufficient circulation, shock, fright, hemorrhage, heat exhaustion, or insulin shock Blue (cyanotic) - airway obstruction or respiratory insufficiency © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

48 Dark pigmented skin is slightly different in response: –Nail beds, and inside lips and mouth and tongue will be pinkish –With shock, skin around mouth and nose will have grayish cast and mouth and tongue will be bluish –During hemorrhaging, mouth and tongue will become gray –Fever is indicated by red flush tips of ears –Pupils Extremely sensitive to situation impacting nervous system Most individual’s pupils are regularly shaped Disparities must be known by the athletic trainer in the event that a condition arises © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

49 Constricted pupils may indicate use of a depressant drug Dilated pupils may indicate head injury, shock, use of stimulant Failure to accommodate may indicate brain injury, alcohol or drug poisoning Pupil response is more important than size Figure 12-21 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

50 –Movement Inability to move may indicate serious CNS deficits impacting motor control Hemiplegia (inability to move one side) may be the result of brain trauma or stroke Bilateral upper extremity sensory motor deficits could indicate cervical spine injury Pressure on spine or injury below the neck could result in compromised function of lower limbs © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

51 –Abnormal Nerve Response Response to adverse stimuli can provide important information Numbness and tingling in limb w/ or w/out movement could indicate nerve or cold damage Blocked blood vessel could cause severe pain, lack of pulse, loss of sensation, Total loss of pain sensation may be caused my hysteria, shock, drug use or spinal cord injury Generalized local pain is an indicator that spinal injury is not present © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

52 Musculoskeletal Assessment Must use logical process to adequately evaluate extent of trauma Knowledge of mechanisms of injury and major signs and symptoms are critical Once the mechanism has been determined, specific information can be gathered concerning the affected area © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

53 History should be taken –Describe events of injury and those leading up to it –Past history, previous injuries and treatment used –Sounds (snaps, cracks, pops = bone, ligament or tendon), grating, crepitus or rubbing, during or following the injury Visual Observation –Inspection of injured and non-injured areas –Look for gross deformity, swelling, skin discoloration © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

54 Palpation –Palpate the area to help determine nature of injury (start away from site of injury) –Determine extent of point tenderness, affected structures and other deformities (not apparent visually) Assessment Decisions –Determine 1) seriousness of injury, 2) type of first aid and immobilization required, 3) need for immediate referral, 4) type of transportation from field to sideline, training room or hospital All information concerning the evaluation and decisions must be documented © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

55 Immediate Treatment –Primary goal is to limit swelling and extent of hemorrhaging –If controlled initially, rehabilitation time will be greatly reduced –Control via RICE REST ICE COMPRESSION ELEVATION © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

56 –REST Stresses and strains must be removed following injury as healing begins immediately Days of rest differ according to extent of injury Rest should occur 72 hours before rehab begins –ICE Initial treatment of acute injuries Used for strains, sprains, contusions, and inflammatory conditions Ice should be applied initially for 20 minutes and then repeated every 1 - 1 1/2 hours and should continue for at least the first 72 hours of new injury Treatment must last at least 20 minutes to provide adequate tissue cooling and can be continued for several weeks © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

57 –COMPRESSION Decreases space allowed for swelling to accumulate Important adjunct to elevation and cryotherapy and may be most important component A number of means of compression can be utilized (Ace wraps, foam cut to fit specific areas for focal compression) Compression should be maintained daily and throughout the night for at least 72 hours (may be uncomfortable initially due to pressure build-up) –ELEVATION Reduces internal bleeding due to forces of gravity Prevents pooling of blood and aids in drainage Greater elevation = more effective reduction in swelling © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

58 Emergency Splinting –Should always splint a suspected fracture before moving –Without proper immobilization increased damage and hemorrhage can occur (potentially death if handled improperly) –It is a simple process –New equipment has also been developed –Rapid form immobilizer Styrofoam chips sealed in airtight sleeve Moldable with Velcro straps to secure Air can be removed to make splint rigid © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

59 –Air splint Clear plastic splint inflated with air around affected part Can be used for splinting but requires practice Do not use if it will alter fracture deformity Provides moderate pressure and can be x-rayed through –SAM splint Thin sheet of pliable aluminum covered with padding –Half-ring splint Used for femoral fractures Requires extensive practice Open fractures must be dressed appropriately to avoid contamination –Splint where patient lies and avoid moving them –Splint one joint above and one below fracture © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

60 –Lower Limb Splinting Fractures of foot and ankle require splinting of foot and knee Fractures involving knee, thigh, or hip require splinting of whole leg and one side of trunk –Upper Limb Splinting Around shoulder, splinting is difficult but doable with sling and swathe with upper limb bound to body Upper arm and elbow should be splinted with arm straight to lessen bone override Lower arm and wrist fractures should be splinted in position of forearm flexion and supported by sling Hand and finger fractures/dislocations should be splinted with tongue depressors, roller gauze and/or aluminum splints © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

61 Splinting of the spine and pelvis –Best splinted and moved with a spine board –Total body rapid form immobilizers have been developed for dealing with spinal injuries –Effectiveness has yet to be determined Figure 12-23 & 34 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

62 Moving and Transporting Injured Patient Must be executed with techniques that will not result in additional injury No excuse for poor handling Planning is necessary and practice is essential Additional equipment may be required © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

63 Placing Patient on Spine Board –EMS should be contacted if this will be required –Must maintain head and neck in alignment of long axis of the body –One person must be responsible for head and neck at all times –Primary emergency care must be provided to maintain breathing, treating for shock and maintaining position of athlete –Permission should be given to transport by physician © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

64 Steps to follow for spine boarding –Examiner stabilizes head & neck –Perform primary survey & retrieve spine board –Prone athlete should be log rolled onto back for CPR or secured to spine board All extremities should be placed in axial alignment Rolling requires 4-5 individuals Neck must be maintained in original position as roll occurs Place spine board close to athlete Each assistant is responsible for a segment –With board close, captain (at head) gives command to roll onto board © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

65 –Head and neck continue to be stabilized once on the board –If patient is a football player, helmet must stay in place with face mask removed –Head and neck are stabilized with strapping and blocks –Trunk and limbs are secured –Rescuers then position themselves so that they can stand with the board on command –Spine board can then be carried from the field and/or loaded into a transport vehicle © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

66 Figure 12-25

67 Spine Boarding Supine Patient –If patient is supine, straddle-slide method can be used Again requires 4-5 people (captain responsible for head and neck, 2 others for trunk and limbs, and 4th to slide the board) –Scoop stretcher can be used, although not always considered safe for spinal injuries With prone patient, halves of stretcher are placed at each side of supine patient, and slid together until hinges lock, scooping athlete onto stretcher No log roll necessary © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

68 Alternative Spine Boarding Techniques © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Figure 12-26

69 Ambulatory Aid –Support or assistance provided to injured individual to walk –Prior to walking, serious injury should be ruled out along with further injury with walking –Patient should gradually move from supine, to seated to standing positions –Complete and even support should be provided on both sides by individuals of equal height when providing ambulatory aid –Arms of patient are draped over shoulders of assistants, with their arms encircling his/her back © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

70 Manual Conveyance –Used to move mildly injured patient a greater distance than could be walked with ease –Carrying the patient can be used following a complete examination –Convenient carry is performed by two assistants Stretcher Carrying –Best and safest mode of transport –With all segments supported patient is lifted and placed gently on stretcher –Careful examination is required if stretcher needed –May be necessary if patient can’t be transported comfortably in seated position © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

71 Figure 12-27 & 28 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

72 Pool Extraction –Requires special consideration Athletic trainer should be able to swim or have water safety/lifeguard training Rescue tube should always be available –Following procedures should be utilized For minor injuries, with patient close to pools edge, rescue tube can be used If far from edge entering the water will be necessary © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Figure 12-30

73 When no injuries to head or neck, approach athlete from behind, reach under arm pits and use rescue tube (between swimmer and clinician) –Tube can be used to help support swimmer –Must keep swimmer calm while moving towards edge of pool Prior to removing swimmer from water you must consider level of assistance, size of swimmer, need for CPR If swimmer must come out of the water a spine board should be utilized –Will require spine board and 2 rescuers © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Figure 12-31

74 –Swimmer with suspected head or neck injury requires special consideration Must be approached in the water slowly not to disrupt water A single rescuer can stabilize the head and neck –Place the arms of the swimmer overhead and compress against the head –Stabilizes the head and neck Swimmer should be secured to spine board in water while stabilization is maintained Once on board, swimmer should be stabilized and when removed from the pool, it should occur head first © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

75 Figure 12-32

76 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

77 Figure 12-33

78 Emergency Emotional Care Emergency care relative to emotional reactions to trauma must also be provided –Accept rights to personal feelings, show empathy, not pity –Accept injured person’s limitations as real –Accept own limitations as provider of first aid –Be empathetic and calm, being obvious that athlete’s feelings are understood and accepted © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

79 When lower extremity ambulation is contraindicate a crutch or cane may be required Faulty mechanics or improper fitting can result in additional injury or potentially falls Fitting patient –Patient should stand with good posture, in flat soled shoes –Crutches should be placed 6” from outer margin of shoe and 2” in front © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

80 –Crutch base should fall 1” below anterior fold of axilla –Hand brace should be positioned to place elbow at 30 degrees of flexion –Cane measurement should be taken from height of greater trochanter Walking with Cane or Crutch –Corresponds to walking –Tripod method Swing through without injured limb making contact with ground –Four- point crutch gait Foot and crutch on same side move forward simultaneously with weight bearing © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

81 –Cane Tripod technique Used on level surface and modified with stair climbing Unaffected support leg moves up one step while body weight is supported on crutch-- followed by transfer of weight to unaffected leg and affected leg is pulled up to step Reversed when descending stairs Must be mindful of wet surfaces –Crutch walking follows a progression Non-weight bearing (NWB) to touch down weight bearing (TDWB) partial (PWB) and full weight bearing (FWB) –When using cane or one crutch, support should be held on unaffected side © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

82 Figure 12-34 & 35


Download ppt "© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 12: On-the-Field Acute Care and Emergency Procedures."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google