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LECTURE 12 AOSC 434 AIR POLLUTION RUSSELL R. DICKERSON.

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Presentation on theme: "LECTURE 12 AOSC 434 AIR POLLUTION RUSSELL R. DICKERSON."— Presentation transcript:

1 LECTURE 12 AOSC 434 AIR POLLUTION RUSSELL R. DICKERSON

2 HYDROCARBRONS REACTIVITY FOR URBAN SMOG (OZONE) FORMATION HYDROCARBONk(O) k(O ₃ ) k(OH) (All units: cm³s ⁻ ¹) Methane, CH ₄ 1.1x10 ⁻ ¹ ⁷ SLOW 7.9x10 ⁻ ¹ ⁵ Ethane, C ₂ H ₆ 9.6x10 ⁻ ¹ ⁶ SLOW 2.7x10 ⁻ ¹³ Propane, C ₃ H ₈ 1.5x10 ⁻ ¹ ⁴ SLOW 1.2x10 ⁻ ¹² Butane, C ₄ H ₁₀ 3.1x10 ⁻ ¹ ⁴ SLOW 2.3x10 ⁻ ¹² Hexane, C ₆ H ₁₄ 9.5x10 ⁻ ¹ ⁴ SLOW 5.7x10 ⁻ ¹² 2,3 Dimethyl butane (C ₆ H ₁₄ ) 2.1x10 ⁻ ¹³ SLOW 6.3x10 ⁻ ¹² Ethene, C ₂ H ₄ 8.4x10 ⁻ ¹³1.8x10 ⁻ ¹ ⁸ 8.0x10 ⁻ ¹² Propene, C ₃ H ₆ 3.6x10 ⁻ ¹²1.1x10 ⁻ ¹ ⁷ 2.5x10 ⁻ ¹¹ Benzene, C ₆ H ₆ 1.6x10 ⁻ ¹ ⁴ SLOW 1.2x10 ⁻ ¹² Toluene, C ₇ H ₈ 5.9x10 ⁻ ¹ ⁴ SLOW 6.4x10 ⁻ ¹²

3 Faster rate constant implies more reactivity and more smog (O ₃ ) produced. For detailed mechanism see “ Development of Ozone Reactivity Scales for Volatile Organic Compounds ” by W.P.L. Carter, EPA-91:epavoc, Rates increase with increasing number of C atoms, with branching, and with sites of instauration (double bonds). Emissions From Autos HYDROCARBON% ALKANES53 ALKENES16 ALKYL BENZNES20 ACETYLENE11 TOTAL100%

4 Abstraction by O atoms Example Ozone oxidation of alkenes Example: oxidation of propene (propylene). OH attack on alkanes

5 SINKS OF AIR POLLUTANTS I.RAINOUT/WASHOUT Only for soluble gases and particles Lifetime the same as that for water 7 days Lifetime increases with altitude II.DRY DEPOSITION Only for “ sticky ” or reactive gases and particles Rate determined by atmospheric turbulence, chemical and physical properties of both the atmospheric species and the surface, i.e. bare soil, vegetation etc. III.REACTIONS Transformation to other species, usually by oxidation

6 OXIDIZING AGENTSSPECIES AFFECTED a) OH CO + OH → CO ₂ + H NO ₂ + OH + M → HNO ₃ CH ₄ + OH → H ₂ O + CH ₃ SO ₂ + OH + M → → H 2 SO 4 CH ₃ CCl ₃ + OH → H ₂ O + CH ₂ CCl ₃ b) O ₃ H ₂ C = CH ₂ + O ₃ → Prod (all other alkenes too) NO + O ₃ → NO ₂ + O ₂ (Note, this is not a net sink for atmos. NOx c) HO ₂ O ₃ + HO ₂ → OH + 2O ₂ d) O CH ₃ CH ₂ CH ₃ + O → CH ₃ CH ₂ CH ₂ + OH (also other NMHC) e) O(¹D) N ₂ O + O(¹D) → 2NO →N ₂ + O ₂ H ₂ O + O(¹D) → 2OH

7 OTHER PROCESSES f) hν H ₂ CO + hν → H ₂ + CO (with O ₂ ) → 2HO ₂ + CO HONO + hν → OH + NO CF ₂ Cl ₂ + hν → CF ₂ Cl + Cl (only in stratosphere.) continue….

8 8 Useful technique for calculating fluxes or lifetimes. When the atmosphere shows horizontal uniformity, production and loss reduce to a 1 D problem. This holds when vertical gradients are much greater than horizontal gradients and when the species X is in steady state. Let z be altitude (m), F flux (g m -2 s -1 ), [X] concentration (g/m 3 ), k’ the pseudo first order rate constant (s -1 ) for loss of X,  is lifetime of X.

9 9 Example for fertilized soil NO emissions: We want to know the emission rate. We have the NO profile at night; this only works at night. NO goes from 20  g/m 3 at the surface to essentially zero at 100 m with a scale height of 10 m. The column content is therefore 10m*20x10 -6 g m -3 = 2x10 -4 g m -2 We know ozone is roughly constant at 50 ppb, therefore at RTP the lifetime is ~100 s. More generally, you can integrate with [O 3 ](z) and k(z). If  is a constant then k’ is a constant:

10 10 Example for crop soil NO emissions, continued:

11 11 Example: What is the lifetime of SO 2 over the eastern US?

12 The flux is monitored.

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14 Figure IIa SO 2 Emissions (tons/day) Locations of flights made with aircraft (shown with black airplanes). Location of power plants emitting SO 2 shown in pink circles (size of circle represents size of emissions for July 13, 2002).

15 Lifetime of SO 2 over the eastern US. See Lee et al., (2011).

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