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12 Chapter 12: Designing Databases Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fourth Edition 12.

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1 12 Chapter 12: Designing Databases Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fourth Edition 12

2 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 2 Learning Objectives u Describe the differences and similarities between relational and object-oriented database management systems u Design a relational database schema based on an entity-relationship diagram u Design an object database schema based on a class diagram

3 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 3 Learning Objectives ( continued ) u Design a relational schema to implement a hybrid object-relational database u Describe the different architectural models for distributed databases

4 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 4 Overview u This chapter describes design of relational and OO data models u Developers transform conceptual data models into detailed database models l Entity-relationship diagrams (ERDs) for traditional analysis l Class diagrams for object-oriented (OO) analysis u Detailed database models are implemented with database management system (DBMS)

5 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 5 Databases and Database Management Systems u Databases (DB) – integrated collections of stored data that are centrally managed and controlled u Database management system (DBMS) – system software that manages and controls access to database u Databases described by a schema – description of structure, content, and access controls

6 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 6 Components of a DB and DBMS

7 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 7 Important DBMS Capabilities u Simultaneous access by multiple users and applications u Access to data without application programs (via a query language) u Organizational data management with uniform access and content controls

8 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 8 Database Models u Impacted by technology changes since 1960s u Model types l Hierarchical l Network l Relational l Object-oriented u Most current systems use relational or object- oriented data models

9 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 9 Relational Databases u Relational database management system (RDBMS) organizes data into tables or relations u Tables are two dimensional data structures l Tuples – rows or records l Fields – columns or attributes u Tables have primary key field(s) that can be used to identify unique records u Keys relate tables to each other

10 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 10 Partial Display of Relational Database Table (Figure 12-2)

11 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 11 Designing Relational Databases u Create table for each entity type u Choose or invent primary key for each table u Add foreign keys to represent one-to-many relationships u Create new tables to represent many-to-many relationships

12 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 12 Designing Relational Databases ( continued ) u Define referential integrity constraints u Evaluate schema quality and make necessary improvements u Choose appropriate data types and value restrictions (if necessary) for each field

13 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 13 Relationship Between Data in Two Tables

14 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 14 RMO Entity-Relationship Diagram (Figure 12-5)

15 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 15 Representing Relationships u Relational databases use foreign keys to represent relationships u One-to-many relationship l Add primary key field of “one” entity type as foreign key in table that represents “many” entity type u Many-to-many relationship l Use the primary key field(s) of both entity types l Use (or create) an associative entity table to represent relationship

16 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 16 Entity Tables with Primary Keys (Figure 12-7)

17 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 17 Represent One-to-Many Relationships by Adding Foreign Keys (in italics) (Figure 12-8)

18 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 18 Enforcing Referential Integrity u Consistent relational database state u Every foreign key value also exists as a primary key value u DBMS enforces referential integrity automatically after schema designer identifies primary and foreign keys

19 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 19 DBMS Referential Integrity Enforcement u When rows containing foreign keys are created l DBMS ensures that value also exists as a primary key in a related table u When row is deleted l DBMS ensures no foreign keys in related tables have same value as primary key of deleted row u When primary key value is changed l DBMS ensures no foreign key values in related tables contain the same value

20 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 20 Evaluating Schema Quality u High-quality data model has l Uniqueness of table rows and primary keys l Ease of implementing future data model changes (flexibility and maintainability) l Lack of redundant data (database normalization) u Database design is not objective or quantitatively measured; it is experience and judgment based

21 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 21 Database Normalization u Normal forms minimize data redundancy l First normal form (1NF) – no repeating fields or groups of fields l Functional dependency – one-to-one relationship between the values of two fields l 2NF – in 1NF and if each non-key element is functionally dependent on entire primary key l 3NF – in 2NF and if no non-key element is functionally dependent on any other non-key element

22 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 22 Decomposition of 1NF Table into 2NF Tables IssueDate is determined by CatalogID alone, not by both CatalogID and ProductID

23 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 23 Conversion of 2NF Table into 3NF Tables ZipCode determines the value for State, and ZipCode is not the key to the table

24 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 24 Object-Oriented Databases u Direct extension of OO design and programming paradigm u ODBMS stores data as objects u Direct support for method storage, inheritance, nested objects, object linking, and programmer- defined data types u Object Definition Language (ODL) l Standard language for describing structure and content of an object database

25 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 25 Designing Object Databases u Determine which classes require persistent storage u Define persistent classes u Represent relationships among persistent classes u Choose appropriate data types and value restrictions (if necessary) for each field

26 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 26 Representing Classes u Transient classes l Objects exist only during lifetime of program or process l Examples: view layer window, pop-up menu u Persistent classes l Objects not destroyed when program or process ceases execution. State must be remembered. l Exist independently of program or process l Examples: customer information, employee information

27 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 27 Representing Relationships u Object identifiers l Used to identify objects uniquely l Physical storage address or reference l Relate objects of one class to another u ODBMS uses attributes containing object identifiers to find objects that are related to other objects u Keyword relationship can be used to declare relationships between classes

28 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 28 Representing Relationships ( continued ) u Advantages include l ODBMS assumes responsibility for determining connection among objects l ODBMS assumes responsibility for maintaining referential integrity u Type of relationships l 1:1, 1:M, M:M (one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to- many) l Association class used with M:M

29 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 29 RMO Domain Model Class Diagram (Figure 12-15)

30 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 30 One-to-One Relationship Represented with Attributes Containing Object Identifiers

31 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 31 One-to-Many Relationship Between Customer and Order Classes

32 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 32 One-to-Many Relationship Represented with Attributes Containing Object Identifiers

33 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 33 Many-to-Many Relationship between Employee and Project Classes (Figure 12-19)

34 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 34 Generalization Hierarchy within the RMO Class Diagram (Figure 12-21)

35 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 35 Hybrid Object-Relational Database Design u RDBMS (hybrid DBMS) used to store object attributes and relationships u Design complete relational schema and simultaneously design equivalent set of classes u Mismatches between relational data and OO l Class methods cannot be directly stored or automatically executed l Relationships are restricted compared to ODBMS l ODBMS can represent wider range of data types

36 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 36 Classes and Attributes u Designers store classes and object attributes in RDBMS by table definition u Relational schema can be designed based on class diagram u Table is created for each class u Fields of each table same as attributes of class u Row holds attribute values of single object u Key field is chosen for each table

37 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 37 Views of Stored Data

38 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 38 Relationships u Relationships are represented with foreign keys u Foreign key values serve same purpose as object identifiers in ODBMS u 1:M relationship – add primary key field of class on “one” side of the relationship to table representing class on “many” side u M:M relationship – create new table that contains primary key fields of related class tables and attributes of the relationship itself

39 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 39 Data Access Classes u OO design based on a three-layer architecture u Data access classes are implementation bridge between data stored in program objects and data in relational database u Methods add, update, find, and delete fields and rows in table or tables that represent the class u Methods encapsulate logic needed to copy data values from problem domain class to database and vice versa

40 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 40 Interaction Among a Domain Class, a Data Access Class, and the DBMS (Figure 12-25)

41 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 41 Data Types u Storage format and allowable content of program variable, object state variable, or database field or attribute u Primitive data types – directly implemented l Memory address (pointer), Boolean, integer, and so on u Complex data types – user-defined l Dates, times, audio streams, video images, URLs

42 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 42 Relational DBMS Data Types u Designer must choose appropriate data type for each field in relational database schema u Choice for many fields is straightforward l Names and addresses use a set of fixed- or variable-length character arrays l Inventory quantities can use integers l Item prices can use real numbers u Complex data types (DATE, LONG, LONGRAW)

43 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 43 Subset of Oracle RDBMS Data Types

44 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 44 Object DBMS Data Types u Use set of primitive and complex data types comparable to RDBMS data types u Schema designer can create new data types and associated constraints u Classes are complex user-defined data types that combine traditional concept of data with processes (methods) to manipulate data u Flexibility to define new data types is one reason that OO tools are widely used

45 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 45 Distributed Databases u Rare for all organizational data to be stored in a single database in one location u Different information systems in an organization are developed at different times u Parts of an organization’s data may be owned and managed by different units u System performance is improved when data is near primary applications

46 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 46 Single Database Server Architecture (Figure 12-27)

47 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 47 Replicated Database Server Architecture (Figure 12-28)

48 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 48 Partitioning Database Schema into Client Access Subsets

49 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 49 Partitioned Database Server Architecture

50 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 50 Federated Database Server Architecture

51 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 51 RMO Distributed Database Architecture u Starting point for design was information about data needs of geographically dispersed users u RMO gathered information during analysis phase u RMO decided to manage database using Park City data center mainframe u RMO is evaluating single-server vs. replicated and partitioned database server architectures u Information on network traffic and costs needed

52 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 52 Single-Server Database Server Architecture for RMO

53 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 53 Replicated and Partitioned Database Server Architecture for RMO

54 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 54 Summary u Modern information systems store data in database and access and manage data using DBMS u Relational DBMS is commonly used u Object DBMS is increasing in popularity u Key activity of systems design is developing relational or object database schema u Relational database is collection of data stored in tables and is developed from entity-relationship diagram

55 12 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 55 Summary ( continued ) u Object database stores data as collection of related objects and is developed from class diagram u Objects can also be stored in RDBMS l RDBMS cannot store methods l RDBMS cannot directly represent inheritance u Medium and larger information systems typically use multiple databases or database servers in various geographic locations


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