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Copyright©2004 South-Western 12 The Design of the Tax System Hönnun skattkerfis
Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning “In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes.”... Benjamin Franklin Taxes paid in Ben Franklin’s time accounted for 5 percent of the average American’s income. 1789
Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning “In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes.”... Benjamin Franklin Today Today, taxes account for up to a third of the average American’s income.
Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning The Federal Government Individual Income Taxes The marginal tax rate is the tax rate applied to each additional dollar of income (skatthlutfallið sem á við fyrir hverja viðbótarkrónu sem viðkomandi fær í tekjur). Higher-income families pay a larger percentage of their income in taxes.
Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning The Federal Government Federal Government Spending Expense Category: Social Security National Defense Income Security Net Interest Medicare Health Other
Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning The Federal Government Financial Conditions of the Federal Budget (Fjárlög) A budget deficit (Halli á fjárlögum) occurs when there is an excess of government spending over government receipts. Government finances the deficit by borrowing from the public. A budget surplus (Afgangur á fjárlögum) occurs when government receipts are greater than government spending. A budget surplus may be used to reduce the government’s outstanding debts.
Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning TAXES AND EFFICIENCY Policymakers have two objectives in designing a tax system... Efficiency (skilvirkni, nýtni, hagkvæmni) Equity (réttlæti, sanngirni)
Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Marginal Tax Rates versus Average Tax Rates The average tax rate is total taxes paid divided by total income. The marginal tax rate (jaðarskattur) is the extra taxes paid on an additional dollar of income.
Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Lump-Sum Taxes A lump-sum tax (skattur greiddur í einni greiðslu, óháð tekjum) is a tax that is the same amount for every person, regardless of earnings or any actions that the person might take.
Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning TAXES AND EQUITY How should the burden of taxes be divided among the population? How do we evaluate whether a tax system is fair?
Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Benefits Principle The benefits principle is the idea that people should pay taxes based on the benefits they receive from government services. An example is a gasoline tax: Tax revenues from a gasoline tax are used to finance our highway system. People who drive the most also pay the most toward maintaining roads.
Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Ability-to-Pay Principle The ability-to-pay principle is the idea that taxes should be levied on a person according to how well that person can shoulder the burden. The ability-to-pay principle leads to two corollary notions of equity. Vertical equity Horizontal equity
Principles of Microeconomics : Ch.12 Second Canadian Edition Chapter 12 The Design of the Tax System © 2002 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.
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