Presentation on theme: "John 11-12 Jesus Rejected by the World. Broad Outline of Fourth Gospel Ch. 1Introduction: Prologue and Witness of John Ch. 2-12Jesus Before the World."— Presentation transcript:
Broad Outline of Fourth Gospel Ch. 1Introduction: Prologue and Witness of John Ch. 2-12Jesus Before the World ("Book of Signs") Theme: Through signs and discourses, Jesus reveals himself as the Son of God, sent to save the world, but is rejected by the world. Ch. 2-4Images of New Salvation Ch. 5-10Growing hostility Ch. 11-12Final rejection Raising Lazarus (ch. 11): Climactic sign. Withdrawal from public ministry (ch. 12). Ch. 13-20 Jesus Before the Disciples ("Book of Passion/Glory") Ch. 21Appendix: Appearance in Galilee
John 11-12 Jesus Rejected by the World Final rejection of Jesus is ironically set against background of the greatest sign. 11:1-57 Seventh Sign: the Raising of Lazarus 1.The death of Lazarus (v. 1-16). a.Lazarus, Mary, and Martha 1)Lazarus (lit., “whom God helps”) a)Described as “the one whom Jesus loves” (v. 3; cf. Beloved Disciple). b)Is there connection to Parable of Rich Man and Lazarus (Lk. 16:19-31)? 2)Mary and Martha appear as sisters also in Lk. 10:38-42. a)Only in John do they have a brother Lazarus. b)In Jn. 12:3, Mary anoints Jesus’ feet; in Lk. 7:37-38, it is an unnamed prostitute.
11:1-57 Seventh Sign: Raising of Lazarus – cont. 1.The death of Lazarus (v. 1-16) – cont. b.Emphasis is on the reality of Lazarus’ death. 1)After learning of Lazarus’ illness, Jesus delays return for two days. a)By the time he arrives, Lazarus has been dead four days. b)Jewish tradition: soul hovers near body for 3 days, then departs. c)Establishes reality, finality of his death – Lazarus really is dead – not a premature burial. 2)Announcement that “Lazarus has fallen asleep” makes same point. a)“Sleep” was common euphemism for death. b)Disciples misunderstand – think Lazarus is literally sleeping. c)Jesus spells it out for them – “Lazarus is dead” (v. 14). c.Jesus’ return to raise Lazarus means his own death. 1)Disciples recognize the danger (v. 8, 16). 2)Story foreshadows death and resurrection of Jesus.
11:1-57 Seventh Sign: Raising of Lazarus – cont. 2.Jesus and Martha (v. 17-27). a.Setting: Bethany, two miles from Jerusalem. 1)Lazarus in tomb 4 days; week of mourning in progress. 2)Martha leaves others in the house and goes out to meet Jesus alone. 3)Conversation revolves around “future” and “realized” eschatology. b.Martha articulates the traditional “future eschatology” (v. 21-24). 1)Martha: “Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died.” 2)Jesus: “Your brother will rise again.” 3)Martha: “I know he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day” (v. 24). 4)Belief in final resurrection was held by many Jews (Pharisees) as well as early Christians (Paul). c.Jesus assures her of “realized eschatology” (v. 25-27). 1)“I am the resurrection and the life” (v. 25). a)Fifth “I am” with a predicate. b)The final resurrection expected at the last day is already present in Jesus. 2)“Those who believe in me…will never die” (v. 25-26). a)Eternal life is not only a future hope but a present reality. b)Decisive is whether one believes in Jesus (v. 26-27). 3)Interprets the sign before it is done: depicts Jesus as source of resurrection and eternal life.
11:1-57 Seventh Sign: Raising of Lazarus – cont. 3.Jesus and Mary (v. 28-37). a.Weep together and go to the tomb. b.Jesus was “greatly disturbed in spirit and deeply moved” (v. 33). 1)embrimaomai (v. 33, 38) – to sternly warn; scold; be deeply moved – expresses intense emotion, indignation, or anger. 2)tarassō (v. 33) – to be agitated, stirred up, troubled. c.What kind of emotion is Jesus experiencing? 1)Anger at the power of death or at the lack of faith. 2)Indignation at the weeping and wailing of the mourners. 3)Grief – for his friend, in sympathy with his friends, or over the human situation of sin and death.
11:1-57 Seventh Sign: Raising of Lazarus – cont. 4.Jesus and Lazarus (v. 38-44). a.Four days in tomb – already decomposing; reality of death. b.“If you believe you will see the glory of God.” (Faith first, then miracle.) c.Miracle is simply told: 1)Jesus thanks God for having heard his prayer. 2)Summons Lazarus to come out. 3)Lazarus emerges still wearing the burial wrappings. d.Significance: 1)Foreshadows Jesus’ resurrection – echoes of empty tomb. 2)Depicts Jesus as one who gives eternal life to all who believe in him. 5.Response of “the Jews” (v. 45-53). a.Many saw the sign and believed. b.Sanhedrin decides Jesus must be stopped to prevent Roman reprisal. 1)Caiaphas: “It is better to have one man die for the people than to have the whole nation destroyed” (v. 50). 2)Ironically, truer than Caiaphas realized: Jesus did “die for the people” (and Rome still came and destroyed the Temple and the nation). 3)Raising of Lazarus precipitates decision to execute Jesus. 6.Jesus’ withdrawal (v. 54-57). a.Hiding out on the edge of the wilderness. b.As Passover approaches, “the Jews” are wondering if Jesus will come to Jerusalem.
12:1-50 Conclusion of the Public Ministry 1.The anointing in Bethany (v. 1-8). a.Mary anoints Jesus’ feet and wipes them with her hair. b.Seems to be conflation of: 1)Mk. 14:3 – unnamed woman in Bethany anoints Jesus’ head. 2)Lk. 7:38 – unnamed harlot in Galilee wets his feet with tears, wipes with hair, and anoints his feet (cf. Lk. 10:38-42). c.Anointing was associated with royalty and burial customs. d.As in Mk., Jn. interprets with reference to Jesus’ death. 2.A plot against Lazarus (v. 9-11). a.Raising of Lazarus was making Jesus popular. b.Chief priests plan to kill him again (ironic humor?). 3.The triumphal entry into Jerusalem (v. 12-19). a.Contrary to Synoptics, Jn. places after the anointing. b.Jn.’s order allows Jesus to enter as a king already anointed – for his burial. c.Only Jn. mentions palm branches – symbol of Jewish nationalism. d.Zech. 9:9-10 promises reign of universal dominion and peace. e.Disciples understood only after he was “glorified” (v. 16).
12:1-50 Conclusion of the Public Ministry – cont. 4.The request of the Greeks (v. 20-26). a.Greek “God-fearers” request audience with Jesus. 1)Coming of Greeks signals that the end has come. 2)“The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified.” 3)Hour of glorification = time of his death. b.Cross establishes time for all to come. 1)Saying about grain of wheat having to die to bear fruit (cf. 1 Cor. 15:36-37). 2)Saying about loving life and losing it (cf. Mk. 8:38).
12:1-50 Conclusion of the Public Ministry – cont. 5.Jesus’ commitment to die for the world (v. 27-36a). a.Roughly corresponds to Gethsemane prayer in Synoptics. 1)Johannine Jesus does not agonize over his fate – does not pray, “Remove this cup from me” (Mk. 14:36), but “Glorify your name.” 2)Voice from heaven (“I have glorified it”) signals time of Jesus’ death is at hand. b.Jesus’ death brings judgment and salvation. 1)“Now is the judgment of this world…ruler of this world will be driven out” (v. 31). a)World of sin is judged by Jesus’ death. b)Supports “Christus Victor” theory of atonement (victory over powers of evil). 2)“When I am lifted up, I will draw all people to myself” (v. 32). a)Third of the “lifted up” sayings. b)Supports “moral influence” theory of atonement (magnetic power of God’s love). 3)Whether Jesus’ death is judgment or salvation depends on the response of faith. a)Time for deciding is limited. b)“The light is with you a little longer…While you have the light, believe in the light, so that you may become children of light” (v. 35-36).
12:1-50 Conclusion of the Public Ministry – cont. 6.The world’s decision to reject Jesus (v. 37b-43). a.Jesus withdraws from public ministry and “hides.” b.In spite of the many signs, “the world” does not believe. 1)Lack of belief fulfills Isaiah 53:1 and 6:10 (cf. Mk. 4:11-12). 2)Deterministic: “they could not believe” because God “blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts” (v. 39-40). c.Many of “the authorities” believed but would not confess (v. 42). 1)Afraid “the Pharisees” would put them out of synagogue. 2)“Secret believers.” 7.Final summary of the public ministry (v. 44-50). a.Final speech of Jesus sums up key themes of public ministry. b.Jesus’ mission has been to reveal the One who sent him. c.He came as light not to judge but to save the world. 1)Whoever does not receive his words is judged by them. 2)Emphasis here is on freedom to accept or reject Jesus.