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Chapter 12 Systems Investigation and Analysis. Chapter 12IS for management2 Participants in System Development Stakeholders Benefit from the systems develop-

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Systems Investigation and Analysis. Chapter 12IS for management2 Participants in System Development Stakeholders Benefit from the systems develop-"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 Systems Investigation and Analysis

2 Chapter 12IS for management2 Participants in System Development Stakeholders Benefit from the systems develop- ment effort Users Interact with the system regularly Systems Analysts Specialize in analyzing & designing business systems. Programmers Modify/develop programs to satisfy user requirements.

3 Chapter 12IS for management3 Typical Reasons for Initiating a Systems Development Project

4 Chapter 12IS for management4 Information System Planning Information Systems Plan Translates strategic & organizational goals into systems development initiatives. Creative Analysis Investigates new approaches to existing problems. Critical Analysis Unbiased & careful questioning of whether system elements are related in the most effective/ efficient ways.

5 Chapter 12IS for management5 Establishing Objectives for Systems Development 4 Performance – Quality or usefulness of output –Quality or usefulness of output format –Speed at which output is generated 4 Cost –Development costs –Costs related to the uniqueness of the application –Fixed investments in hardware & related equipment –On-going operating costs

6 Chapter 12IS for management6 Systems Development & the Internet 4 Applications being moved to the Internet –Sales –Order placement –Access to product information 4 Building a static Web site (much easier than dynamic Web site) 4 Tools to help with Internet systems development

7 Chapter 12IS for management7 Systems Development Life Cycle

8 Chapter 12IS for management8 Systems Development Life Cycle Systems Investigation ID problems & opportunities Systems Analysis Study existing systems & work processes Systems Design Lays out how the system will do what it will do Systems Implementation Assemble components & put new/ modified system into operation. Systems Maintenance and Review Ensures the system operates & is modified to keep up with business changes.

9 Chapter 12IS for management9 Prototyping: The Iterative Life Cycle Operational Prototype Accesses real data files, edits input data, makes necessary computations & comparisons, & produces real output Non-operational Prototype A mockup or model that includes output & input specifications & formats

10 Chapter 12IS for management10 General Prototyping Model Rapid Application Development (RAD) Employs tools, techniques, & methodologies designed to speed application development, automates source code generation, & facilitate user involvement in design & development activities Joint Application Development (JAD) Involves group meetings in which users, stakeholders, & IS professionals work together to analyze existing systems, propose solutions, & define requirements for a new or modified system

11 Chapter 12IS for management11 Factors Affecting Systems Development Success Managing Change Requires the ability to recognize existing or potential problems & deal with them before they become a serious threat to the success of the new/ modified system

12 Chapter 12IS for management12 Factors Affecting Systems Development Success Use of project management tools –Schedule –Milestone –Deadline –Critical path –Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) –Gantt chart

13 Chapter 12IS for management13 Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools Tools that automate many systems development tasks –Upper CASE tools focus on activities associated with the early stages of systems development –Lower CASE tools focus on the later implementation stages of systems development –Integrated (I-CASE) tools combine upper/lower CASE

14 Chapter 12IS for management14 Systems Investigation Identifies potential problems & opportunities & considers them in light of the company’s goals SI report summarizes results of systems investigation & the process of feasibility analysis & recommends a course of action

15 Chapter 12IS for management15 Feasibility Analysis Technical Feasibility: Can the hardware, software, & other system components be acquired or developed to solve the problem? Operational Feasibility: Can the project be put into action or operation? Schedule Feasibility: Can the project be completed in a reasonable time? Economic Feasibility: Does the project make financial sense?

16 Chapter 12IS for management16 Internal & External Sources of Data Internal sources 4 Users, stakeholders, & managers 4 Organization charts 4 Forms and documents 4 Procedure manuals & policies 4 Financial reports 4 IS manuals 4 Other manuals & business processes External Sources 4 Customers 4 Suppliers 4 Stockholders 4 Government agencies 4 Competitors 4 Outside groups 4 Journals, media 4 Consultants

17 Chapter 12IS for management17 Data Collection 4 Structured Interview 4 Unstructured Interview 4 Direct Observation 4 Questionnaires 4 Statistical Sampling

18 Chapter 12IS for management18 Data Analysis Manipulating collected data so it is usable for development team members participating in systems analysis Data Modeling: A commonly accepted approach to modeling organizational objects & associations that employs both text & graphics Activity Modeling: A method to describe related objects, associations, & activities Data Flow Diagram: A diagram that models objects, associations, & activities by describing how data can flow between & around them

19 Chapter 12IS for management19 Diagrams Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD) Data Flow Diagram (DFD)

20 Chapter 12IS for management20 Application Flowcharts Charts that show relationships among applications or systems

21 Chapter 12IS for management21 Grid Charts A table that shows relationships among the various aspects of a systems development effort

22 Chapter 12IS for management22 Requirements Analysis An assessment used to determine user, stakeholder, & organizational needs

23 Chapter 12IS for management23 The Systems Analysis Report 4 Strength and weaknesses of existing system from a stakeholder’s perspective 4 User/stakeholder requirements for the new system 4 Organizational requirements 4 Description of what new information systems should do to solve the problem

24 Chapter 12IS for management24 Case study Case 1: FAA system development project, page 565


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