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FAA AAR-410 December 5, 20061 FAA Airport Pavement Roughness R&D u Gordon Hayhoe, AAR-410, FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center, Atlantic City, New Jersey,

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Presentation on theme: "FAA AAR-410 December 5, 20061 FAA Airport Pavement Roughness R&D u Gordon Hayhoe, AAR-410, FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center, Atlantic City, New Jersey,"— Presentation transcript:

1 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 20061 FAA Airport Pavement Roughness R&D u Gordon Hayhoe, AAR-410, FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center, Atlantic City, New Jersey, U.S.A. u Continue development and maintenance of ProFAA (in process). u Develop a standard for CA Profilograph simulation (in process). u Compare measured and simulated aircraft response (data analysis in process). u Conduct a pilot subjective rating study using the FAA 737 full-motion simulator (planning).

2 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 20062 ProFAA Computer Program u Intended to provide analysis of airport pavement roughness by computing indexes and simulating aircraft response. u An inertial profiling system was developed for measuring runway and taxiway longitudinal elevation profiles from threshold to threshold. u Constant profile measurement speed not necessary. u Profiles are not absolute – somewhere between absolute and normal high-pass filtered. u Suitable for high-speed aircraft simulation.

3 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 20063 Profile Measurement FAA Methodology Standard High- Pass Filter Methodology Measurement speed – profile measured from zero speed to zero speed

4 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 20064 ProFAA Computer Program Basic Index Display

5 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 20065 Airport Pavement Profile Data Measured At u Sixteen Airports u U.S.A. and Foreign u 4 Large Hub, 3 Medium Hub, 5 Feeder 4 Foreign large international u Flexible and Rigid Pavements u Runways and Taxiways

6 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 20066 Straightedge versus Profilograph

7 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 20067 Straightedge versus Boeing Bump

8 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 20068 FAA TC Boeing 727-100QC Instrumented Aircraft, N40 u The FAA WJHTC operated a fully instrumented Boeing 727-100 until it was damaged about five years ago during an arrestor bed test. u Measurements were made with N40 in 1997 on a runway and taxiway at a medium size regional airport. u At the same time longitudinal profile measurements were made with the FAA profiler. u The data from these test is now being analyzed to compare measured airplane responses with simulated responses.

9 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 20069 Why Wait Until Now to Analyze the Data. u Development of pavement thickness design procedures and associated full-scale traffic testing consumed most available R&D resources. u The AAR-410 budget has recently been increased and a significant portion of the increase is assigned to roughness work over at least the next three years.

10 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200610 N40 on Jacks in the Hangar

11 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200611 Installation of Axle Strain Gages

12 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200612 Installation of Axle Strain Gages

13 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200613 Installation of Axle Strain Gages

14 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200614 Main Gear Force Calibration

15 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200615 Interior and Instrumentation Racks

16 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200616 Speed Sensor on Nose Gear

17 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200617 N40 on Jacks in the Hangar

18 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200618 Variables Measured on N40. u Vertical and side forces and torque at each wheel on main and nose gears. u Speed at nose gear. u Three-axis accelerations at aircraft cg and floor of cockpit. u Inertial guidance system outputs. u Displacement of control surfaces, throttle, etc.

19 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200619 Tests Run November 3 and 4, 1997

20 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200620 Tests Run December 12, 1997

21 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200621 Tests Run December 12, 1997

22 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200622 Tests Run December 12, 1997

23 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200623

24 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200624

25 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200625

26 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200626

27 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200627 These are Preliminary Steps u Continuing work will include variation of simulation parameters such as: u Flexible body modes. u Pitch moment of inertia for cockpit comparisons. u Strut model parameters – primarily Coulomb and hydraulic friction. u Modify simulation program to accept varying speed.

28 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200628 u Includes damping forces due to: u Velocity squared hydraulic damping. u Strut seal Coulomb friction. u Strut bearing Coulomb friction due to strut inclination. u Two-to-one breakaway-to-sliding friction. u All wheels lumped into one equivalent wheel. u Unsprung mass is ignored. u Gas compression spring. u Linear tire spring with linear damping. ProFAA Computer Program Strut Model

29 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200629 Subjective Pilot Rating Study Using Full-Motion Simulator - Objectives u Develop a rating scale for pilot subjective response to vertical cockpit vibrations excited by longitudinal pavement surface elevation disturbances. u The scale to range from very smooth to exceedingly rough. u Identify on the rating scale limits for cockpit vibration resulting in uncomfortable conditions and unacceptable conditions. u A similar project has been proposed to ACRP but using field data.

30 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200630 Why Use a Simulator and Not Operational Airplanes u For u Test repeatability. u Rapid change in profile characteristics. u Cost. u Safety. u Against u Concerns about simulator fidelity. u Difficult to change cockpit characteristics.

31 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200631 FAA Full-Motion 727 Simulator, Now replaced with a 737 Simulator. Located at Oklahoma City

32 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200632 Previous Experience u AAR-410 has run projects on the FAA 727 simulator for about 15 years. u High-speed exit geometry and lighting configurations. u High-speed ground handling. u Airplane landing into and arrestor bed. u General lighting and visual guidance studies. u The person responsible for simulator operation has a Ph.D. in human factors as well as being a National Resource Specialist in Simulators. u E1927 “Conducting Subjective Ride Quality Pavement Ratings.

33 FAA AAR-410 December 5, 200633 Subjective Pilot Ratings - Schedule u FY06 (funding obligated) u Develop scope and test plan. u Establish procedures for setting roughness profiles in the simulator computer program. u Develop preliminary rating scale and questionnaire. u FY07 u Continue test plan, etc. u Preliminary simulator study with a small number of pilots to test the scales and other procedures. u Finalize procedures. u FY08 u Run the full experiment with the necessary number of subjects and profiles. u Analysis and report

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