2Chapter 12, Sec 1 RECONSTRUCTION – rebuilding after the Civil War LINCOLN’S PLAN - moderate policy (10% PLAN)Proclamation of Amnesty & ReconstructionHe offered a pardon to all Southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the U.S. & accepted the Union’s proclamations concerning slavery.When 10% of a state’s voters in the 1860 presidential election had taken this oath, they could organize a new state government.
3Chapter 12, Sec 1 Radical Republicans! Wanted to change the South. Leaders – Thaddeus Stevens & Charles SumnerTHREE MAIN GOALSPrevent leaders of the Confederacy from returning to power after the war.Wanted the Republican Party to become powerful institution in the South.Wanted the federal government to help African Americans achieve political equality by guaranteeing their right to vote in the South.
4Chapter 12, Sec 1 WADE-DAVIS BILL -Moderate Republicans Majority of all adult white men in a former Confederate state to take an oath of allegiance to the Union.State could then hold a constitutional convention to create a new state government.Each state’s convention would then have to abolish slavery, reject all debts the state had acquired as part of the Confederacy, & deprive all former Confederate government officials and military officers of the right to vote or hold office.
5Chapter 12, Sec 1 FREEDMEN’S BUREAU Fed and clothed war refugees in the Southusing surplus army supplies.2. Helped formerly enslaved people find work on plantations & negotiated labor contracts with planters.3. Established special courts to deal with grievances between workers and planters.Note: The bureau also worked closely with Northern charities to educate formerly enslaved African Americans and it provided housing for schools, paid teachers, & helped to establish colleges for training African American teachers.
7Chapter 12, Sec 1 I. ANDREW JOHNSON – Southerner (TN) A. Became president when Lincolnwas killed.B. Johnson’s plan:Pardon to former Confederates whotook the oath of loyalty and return theirproperty to them.2. Former Confederate officers & officials & those who owned more than $20,000 of property were excluded; they could apply directly to the president for a pardon.3. States had to call a convention, revoke secession, ratify the 13th Amendment, & reject all Civil War debts.
8Chapter 12, Sec 1 C. Many former Confederates got elected to Congress, including the VP for theConfederacy (Stephens). Thisangered the Northern politicians.D. BLACK CODES -- limited AfricanAmericans’ rights in the South.C. Many former Confederates got electedto Congress, including the VP for theConfederacy (Stephens). Thisangered the Northern politicians.D. BLACK CODES -- limited AfricanAmericans’ rights in the South.
9Chapter 12, Sec 2 II. Radical Republicans Take Control. A. Civil Rights Act of 1866 – grantedCitizenship to all persons born orNaturalized in the U.S. (exceptNative Americans)!!!!B. The Fourteenth Amendment –1. Grants citizenship to all personsborn or naturalized in the U.S.2. Forbids states from deprivingany person of life, liberty, or propertywithout due process of law.3. Provides equal protectionof the law.
10Chapter 12, Sec 2 C. Election of 1866 – Republicans (Johnson) win an overwhelming victory – 3-1 majority.D. MILITARY RECONSTRUCTION.1. MILITARY RECONSTRUCTION ACT (Congressional Republicans passed this act that wiped out Johnson’s programs!!)This act divided the former Confederacy into five military districts with a Union general in charge of each district.
12Chapter 12, Sec 2 Military Reconstruction Act Each former Confederate state had to hold another constitutional convention to design a constitution acceptable to Congress.New state constitutions had to grant the right to vote to all adult male citizens, regardless of race.After ratification of the new constitution, states had to ratify the 14th Amendment.
13Chapter 12, Sec 22. By the end of 1868, six former Confederate states had been readmitted to the Union – NC, SC, FL, AL, LA, & AR.
14Chapter 12, Sec 2E. IMPEACHMENT. Johnson had charges brought against him because he challenged the TENURE OF OFFICE ACT when he fired Secretary of War Stanton. He was charged with “high crimes and misdemeanors.” AND he had fired four military commanders in the South which the Republicans felt underminedthe Reconstruction Program.He was not convicted.
15Chapter 12, Sec 2 F. THE ELECTION OF 1868 Republican Candidate – Grant WON!!G. THE FIFTEENTH AMENDMENTthe right to vote “shallNOT be denied…on accountof race, color, or previouscondition of servitude.”
16Chapter 12, Sec 2 EXPANDING THE NATION Under President Johnson, Secretary of State Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. At first it was called “Seward’s Icebox,”but later it becamevaluable becauseof its oil and gold.
18CARPETBAGGERS AND SCALAWAGS Carpetbaggers – Northerners who moved South; many came with suitcases made of carpet fabric. Southerners felt that they were intruders taking advantage of the South.
19SCALAWAGS – an old Scotch-Irish term for weak, underfed, worthless animals. They were white Southerners who worked with the Republicans & supported Reconstruction.
20Chapter 12, Sec 3 AFRICAN AMERICANS enter politics! Some became legislators; others became administrators in the government.Some were elected to local government positions such as mayor or police chief.No African American wasever elected governor.1st Black U.S.Senator
21Chapter 12, Sec 3 REPUBLICAN REFORMS in the SOUTH. Repealed the Black Codes.Made more state offices elective.Established state hospitals.Established institutions for orphans, the hearing & visually impaired, & mentally ill.Rebuilt roads, bridges, railways & provided funds for new industry in the South.Established a new system of public schools.HOWEVER – many Republicans were not honest.GRAFT (gaining money illegally) was common.
22AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITIES Chapter 12, Sec 3AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITIESEDUCATION – By 1876, 40% of African American children attended school in the South.Fisk University (TN),Atlanta University (GA),and Morehouse College (GA)were new African Americancolleges.
23CHURCHES and SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Chapter 12, Sec 3CHURCHES and SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONSChurches served as the center of most African American communities.Churches housed schools and social activities.Churches often acted as unofficial courts by promoting social values, settling disputes and disciplining people.
24Chapter 12, Sec 3 The Ku Klux Klan Secret society started in 1866 by former Confederate soldiers in Pulaski, TN.GOAL – to drive out the Union troops &carpetbaggers; regain control of theSouth for the Democratic Party.
25Chapter 12, Sec 3Republicans & African Americans formed their own groups and fought back.The Enforcement Acts –1. Made it a federal crime to interferewith a citizen’s right to vote.2. Put federal elections under thesupervision of federal marshals.3. KKK Act - outlawed the activities ofthe klan.
27C 12, Sec 4 I. The Grant Administration Little political experience! A. Republicans controlled Congress1. Kept tariffs HIGH2. Tightened banking regulations3. Promised to repay debts withgold and not paper money4. increased federal spending on RR, port facilities, & the national postal system.5. Kept “sin taxes” (alcohol/tobacco)B. Liberal Republicans – pulled away from the Republicans because they did not want Grant to be president again – nominated Horace Greeley.
28C 12, Sec 4 C. Scandals in Grant’s Second Term A. William Belknap – Sec of War, accepted bribes – resigned.B. Whiskey Ring –gov. officials & distillers inSt. Louis cheated the gov. outof millions by filling false tax reports.D. The Panic of 1873 – caused by bad railroad investments that forced a bankingfirm to declare bankruptcy. This caused small banks to close the Stock Market to plummet and businesses to shut down causing unemployment.
29C 12, Sec 4 II. RECONSTRUCTION ENDS A. Democrats “REDEEM” the South! Democrats were able to win back the support of white owners of small farms who had backed Republicans by appealing to the white racism and making it a white/black struggle.B. The Turning Point – The Compromise of 18771. Election of 1876 –Republicans – Nominated Rutherford B. Hayes (wanted to end Radical Reconstruction).Democrats – Nominated Samuel Tilden
30C 12, Sec 4 2. Tilden – 184 electoral votes (1 short of a majority.) Hayes electoral votes20 votes are in dispute.3. Congress appointed a commission of 15 made up of the House, Senate, & Supreme Court. (8 Republicans, 7 Democrats)4. Hayes won, but many thought a deal had been made, but never proved.
31Chapter 12, Sec 4 5. April 1877 – Hayes pulled troops out of the South.RECONSTRUCTION was overand the Democrats REDEEMED the South.III. A “NEW SOUTH” Arises.Henry Grady, editor of theAtlanta Constitution created this phrase –the South had to develop a strongindustrial economy.
32C 12, Sec 4 – Hayes with his Secretary of the Interior in the White House.
33C 12, Sec 4A. NEW INDUSTRIES.1. Northern capital helped rebuild railroads.2. Iron and Steel – Birmingham, AL3. Tobacco processing – North Carolina4. Cotton Mills appeared in towns.5. HOWEVER, the South remainedmainly agrarian.
34Chapter 12, Sec 4 6. For many African Americans the end of Reconstruction meant a return to the“OLD SOUTH” where they had little politicalpower and were forced to labor underdifficult and unfair conditions.
35Chapter 12, Sec 4 B. African Americans worked as: 1. Tenant Farmers – paid rent for theland they farmed.
36Chapter 12, Sec 42. Sharecroppers – did not pay their rent in cash; instead, they paid a share of their crops to cover rent as well as the cost of the seed, fertilizer, tools, & animals they needed.
37Chapter 12, Sec 4 3. Furnishing Merchants. Provided sharecroppers with the supplies they needed on credit but at interest rates often as high as 40 percent.Crop liens – Merchants could take some crops to cover their debts.Debt peonage – trapped sharecroppers.
38The Civil War ended slavery. Chapter 12, Sec 4The Civil War ended slavery.BUTMany African Americans were trapped in economic circumstances where they lost much of their newly gained freedom.