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African American Culture Presented by: Merissa Fontenot Teresa Cossey-Simpson.

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Presentation on theme: "African American Culture Presented by: Merissa Fontenot Teresa Cossey-Simpson."— Presentation transcript:

1 African American Culture Presented by: Merissa Fontenot Teresa Cossey-Simpson

2 Demographics 281,421,906 African Americans reside in US 54% in South, 19% in Midwest, 18% in Northeast and 10% in West 3/5 of all African Americans live in ten particular states: New York, California, Texas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, North Carolina, Maryland, Michigan, and Louisiana

3 New York, California, Texas, Florida and Georgia all have African American populations over two million New York is has the largest population of African Americans at two 2.3 million, followed by Chicago with 1.1 million Three other cities have notable black populations: Detroit, Philadelphia, and Houston Demographics Cont.

4 Regional Populations

5 Texas Demographics On a top ten ranking of the largest black populations in the Unites States, Texas holds three of the top positions Houston (#4): 1.9 million Dallas (#8), San Antonio (#9): 1.1 million each 118,988 African Americans reside in SETX 22% of general population Twice statewide percentage of 12%

6 National Percentages

7 Origins in Americas Does not begin with slavery 1500s Africans exploring world 1619 Jamestown 20 arrive in Jamestown, VA As indentured servants Treated same as white servants Descendents historically free blacks and overrepresented in middle and upper classes

8 1700s Great period of expansion in America Indentured servitude becomes slavery Transatlantic slave trade now in progress 1702 Treaty of Utrecht British accorded 30 yr. contract to send 5,000 slaves a year to Spanish colonies 1750 Georgia last colony to legalize slavery Now law in all 13 colonies

9 The Slave Trade 10,000 slaves/yr transported across Atlantic Over the 300 yrs trade in force 10 to 20 million slaves brought to Americas 1 to 4 million ended-up in what would become US

10 Social, Political and Economical Influences Cont the United States Constitution was ratfied with a clause equating slaves to 3/5 of a white citizen and a provision that the slave trade would end in 20 years Although, it continued for the next 2 generations

11 Slave compound on the Gulf of Guinea, 1746

12 Published 1807

13 Branding Slaves

14 American Revolution April 1776 Continental Congress votes to halt slave trade Only to shut-down British commerce July 1776 drafting Constitution …inalienable rights to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness… Thomas Jefferson owned over 200 slaves when wrote these words

15 3/5 Clause 1789 Constitution ratified with clause equating negro to 3/5 of a white and provision to end slave trade within 20 yrs. Actually gave southern states more political power and protected slave trade for another 20 yrs

16

17 Social, Political and Economical Influences ContFree Blacks , , ,000 The fight to free all African Americans over the next 7 decades launched from abolished slavery in some states to those who simply escaped!

18 Abolition Cont. Leaders of an All Star Team Fredrick Douglas William Wells Brown Sojourner Truth Harriet Tubman The unrelenting determination and perseverance of the abolitionists brought the issue of slavery to the ONLY war fought on American soil – Civil War Sojourner Truth, 1864 (?)

19 May 21, 1831

20 1838

21 Emancipation Civil War 1861 the Confederate States opened fire at Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina January 1 st 1863 President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation Freeing slaves in all Confederate territories Did not free those in Washing DC or the border states

22 Social, Political and Economical Influences Cont. Quaker Religion were among the 1 st to protest the enslavement of African Americas, citing the practice as incongruent with Christian teachings Antislavery societies were formed These petitions with thousands of signatures were sent to Congress They held meetings and conferences They boycotted products made with slave labor Gave innumerable speeches for their cause

23 Social, Political and Economical Influences Cont. Leaders of an All Star Team Fredrick Douglas William Wells Brown Sojourner Truth Harriet Tubman The unrelenting determination and perseverance of the abolitionists brought the issue of slavery to the ONLY war fought on American soil – Civil War

24 Social, Political and Economical Influences Cont. Civil War 1861 the Confederate States opened fire at Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina January 1 st 1863 President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation Freeing slaves in all Confederate territories Did not free those in Washing DC or the border states

25 Social, Political and Economical Influences Cont. 13 th Amendment to the Constitution was passed in 1865 All African Americans were granted their freedom July 1866 Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment invalidating the Supreme Courts 1857 decision Dred Scott v. Sanford People of African descent, whether or not they were slaves, could never be citizens of the United States

26 Social, Political and Economical Influences Cont. 14 th Amendment Congress created: Freedmens Bureau – supervised relief activities including issuing rations, clothing and medicine Also set up churches and schools for free blacks

27 Cultural Impact on the Educational Needs and Service Needs 1837 Institute for Colored Youth was founded by Richard Humphrey 1854 Ashman Institute 1st school of higher learning for young black men founded by John Miller Dickey and his wife Sarah Emlen Cresson 1856 Wilberforce University 1st black school of higher learning owned and operated by African Americans. It was founded by African Methodist Episcopal Church st public high school for African Americans was founded in Washing DC institution of excellence over ¾ of its graduates went onto college Produced 1 st black General 1 st Cabinet Member 1 st Black Judge

28 Cultural Impact on Educational Needs and Services Cont. By 1870 More than 240,000 pupils in over 4,000 different schools Within the next decade the following were established: Howard University, Meharry Medical College, the Spelman College, the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, Fisk University and the Hampton Institute

29 Cultural Impact on Educational Needs and Services Cont – ratification of the 15 th Amendment granted ALL males the right to vote EVERY state legislature had African American members and by 1875 – 11 blacks had been elected to the United States Congress

30 Cultural Impact on Educational Needs and Services Cont. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas was impetus for the movement toward equal rights and opportunities for black citizens Plessy v. Ferguson Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal Thurgood Marshall, then an attorney for the NAACP argued the case and would later become the 1 st African American Supreme Court Justice

31 Lets Eat! Please join us at RICHARDs


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