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Personality Chapter Twelve

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1 Personality Chapter Twelve
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2 Did You Know That… According to the originator of psychodynamic theory, Sigmund Freud, slips of the tongue may reveal hidden motives and wishes of which we are unaware? According to Carl Gustav Jung, another psychodynamic theorist, we inherit a shared unconscious mind containing images that can be traced to ancestral times? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

3 Did You Know That… (cont.)
According to a leading personality theorist, extraverted people may require more stimulating activities than introverted people to maintain an optimal level of arousal? The “Big Five” is not the name of a new NCAA basketball conference but the label used to describe the leading trait theory of personality today? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

4 Did You Know That… (cont.)
A leading humanistic theorist, Carl Rogers, believed that children should receive love and approval unconditionally from their parents regardless of their behavior at any particular point in time? According to a widely held view in the 19th century, you can learn about a person’s character and mental abilities by examining the pattern of bumps on the person’s head? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 The Psychodynamic Perspective
Module 12.1 The Psychodynamic Perspective Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

6 Module 12.1 Preview Questions
What is personality? What three levels of consciousness did Freud believe comprise the human mind? What are the structures of personality in Freud’s theory? What are psychological defense mechanisms? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

7 Module 12.1 Preview Questions (cont.)
What are the five states of psychosexual development in Freud’s theory? What are some of the major contributions of other psychodynamic theorists? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

8 What Is “Personality”? The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics and behavior patterns that account for our individuality and consistency over time. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

9 Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Freud’s meeting with Jean Martin Charcot. Importance of instincts: Sexual instinct Aggressive instinct Instincts must be balanced with social acceptability. Importance of early childhood experiences. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

10 Figure 12.1: Levels of Consciousness

11 Psychoanalytic Theory: Structure of Personality
Id Unconscious drives and instincts Follows the pleasure principle, instant gratification Ego Follows the reality principle Balancing id’s demands with social approval Superego Moral guardian, conscience May impose self-punishment, guilt, shame Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

12 Psychoanalytic Theory: Defense Mechanisms
Repression Denial Reaction formation Rationalization Projection Sublimation Regression Displacement Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

13 Psychoanalytic Theory: Personality Development
Psychosexual stages of development Characterized by changes in libido, shifting location of erogenous zones. Activities pleasurable because essential to survival. Conflicts emerge during each psychosexual stage. Conflicts can lead to development of fixations. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

14 Psychosexual Stages of Development
Oral Stage: birth to months old Erogenous zone is the mouth. Pleasure through sucking, mouthing, chewing. Anal Stage: months Erogenous zone is the anal cavity. Sexual pleasure through the ability to control elimination. Conflict arises from issue of toilet training. Anal-retentive vs. anal-expulsive personality Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

15 Psychosexual Stages of Development (cont.)
Phallic Stage: ages 3-6 Erogenous zone is the phallic region. Core conflict is the Oedipus complex. Freud’s followers called female version of conflict the Electra complex. Boys develop castration anxiety. Girls experience penis envy. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

16 Psychosexual Stages of Development (cont.)
Latent Stage: ages 6-12 Sexual impulses remain dormant. Genital Stage: puberty to adulthood Attraction to opposite gender. Sexual energies expressed through sexual intercourse, marriage, child bearing. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

17 Other Psychodynamic Approaches
Beyond Sigmund Freud: neo-Freudians Less emphasis on sex and aggression Greater emphasis on social relationships, ego, concept of self Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

18 Carl Jung’s Analytical Psychology
Also believed in role of unconscious conflicts on behavior. Greater emphasis on present experiences. Personal unconscious consists of repressed memories and impulses. Collective unconscious contains archetypes. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

19 Alfred Adler’s Individual Psychology
Emphasis on unique potential of each individual. Conscious experience plays important role in personality. Role of the creative self. Inferiority complex and the drive for superiority Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

20 Karen Horney Critic of Freud’s view of female development.
Emphasized role of social and cultural forces. Importance of parent-child relationships. Basic anxiety Basic hostility Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

21 Evaluating the Psychodynamic Perspective
Contributions Detailed and comprehensive theory of personality Awareness of unconscious drives, impulses Criticisms Overimportance of sexual and aggressive drives Too little emphasis on social relationships Lack of evidence and questions of validity Untestable hypotheses, unscientific Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

22 Module 12.2 The Trait Perspective
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

23 Module 12.2 Preview Questions
What are the three types of traits in Allport’s trait model? What was Cattell’s view on the organization of traits? What three traits are represented in Eysenck’s model of personality? What is the “Big Five” trait model of personality? What role do genes play in personality? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

24 Trait Perspective Personality consists of relatively enduring personal characteristics called traits. Trait theorists focus on: How people differ in traits. How traits can be measured. How traits are organized. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

25 Gordon Allport Personality traits are physical entities embedded in the brain. Inherited but influenced by experience Hierarchy of traits Cardinal traits Central traits Secondary traits Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

26 Raymond Cattell Surface Traits: Characteristics of personality inferred from observations of behavior. Source Traits: More general traits of personality. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

27 Figure 12.2: Cattell’s 16PF Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

28 Hans Eysenck Described personality using three major traits:
Introversion-extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Biological differences responsible for individual variations in personality traits. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

29 Figure 12.3: Eysenck’s Personality Types
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

30 Five Factor Model (FFM)
“Big Five” personality factors: Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

31 Genetic Basis of Traits
Heredity plays important role in shaping personality. Focus is on the interactions of biology and environment. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

32 Evaluating the Trait Perspective
Contributions Has intuitive appeal. Led to development of personality tests. Drawbacks Labels rather than explain behavior. Behavior may not be so stable across time and situations as assumed by trait theorists. Emerging view is that behavior involves an interaction between traits and situational factors. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

33 The Social-Cognitive Perspective
Module 12.3 The Social-Cognitive Perspective Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

34 Module 12.3 Preview Questions
What are expectancies and subjective values? What is reciprocal determinism? What are situation and person variables? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

35 Traditional Behavioral View
Personality is shaped by environmental influences. Personality consists of the sum total of an individual’s learned behavior. All behavior is learned on the basis of classical and operant conditioning. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

36 Social-Cognitive Theory
Adopts a broader view of learning To explain behavior, must take into account: Cognitive aspects of behavior such as expectancies. Social aspects of behavior such as imitation. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

37 Julian Rotter Explaining, predicting behavior depends on knowing individual’s: Reinforcement history Expectancies Subjective values Locus of control External versus internal Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

38 Figure 12.4: Bandura’s Model of Reciprocal Determinism
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

39 Albert Bandura Emphasized role of observational learning.
Two types of expectancies: Outcome expectations Efficacy expectations Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

40 Walter Mischel Situational variables Person variables Expectancies
Subjective values Competencies Encoding strategies Self-regulatory systems and plans Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

41 Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective
Contributions Improved understanding of relationship between behavior and environmental factors. Broadening of learning theory to include cognitive influences. Criticisms Fails to include unconscious influences, heredity. Little focus on subjective experience. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

42 The Humanistic Perspective
Module 12.4 The Humanistic Perspective Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

43 Module 12.4 Preview Questions
What is self-theory? How do collectivistic and individualistic cultures view the concept of self? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

44 Carl Rogers Inner drive to strive toward self-actualization.
Personality expressed through the conscious experience of directing self towards fulfilling our unique potential. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

45 Roger’s Self-Theory Self as center of the human experience
Development of self-esteem Unconditional positive regard Conditional positive regard Self-esteem and self-ideals Development of client-centered therapy Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

46 Abraham Maslow The innate drive toward self-actualization shapes our personality. Drive motivates us to develop our unique potentials as human beings. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

47 Culture and Self-Identity
Collectivistic Cultures: Emphasis on people’s social roles and obligations. Value group goals over individual goals. Emphasis on communal values. Individualistic Cultures: Emphasis on individual identity and personal accomplishments. Idealize independence and self-sufficiency Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

48 Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective
Contributions Profound impact on society. Focused attention on need to understand subjective or conscious experience of individuals. Influence of client-centered therapy. Helped restore concept of self to psychology. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

49 Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective
Criticisms Difficult to scientifically study conscious experience. Possible negative consequences from emphasis on self-fulfillment. Does drive for self-actualization really exist? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

50 Module 12.5 Personality Tests
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

51 Module 12.5 Preview Questions
What are self-report personality inventories? What are projective tests of personality? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

52 Measuring Personality
Historical Attempts Examination of facial features Phrenology Modern Strategies Self-report personality inventories Projective tests Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

53 Self-Report Personality Inventories
Objective tests Limited response options. Construction based on research. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Constructed to help diagnose mental disorders. Raw scores converted into standard scores. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

54 Figure 12.5: Sample MMPI-2 Profiles
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

55 Evaluation of Self-Report Personality Tests
Criticisms Susceptible to potential response biases. Benefits Relatively inexpensive to administer and score. People may be more willing to disclose personal information. May be used in prediction of behavior. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

56 Projective Tests Unstructured or ambiguous stimuli to be interpreted.
Assumption that people “project” needs, drives, motives through their responses. Responses must be interpreted. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

57 Figure 12.6: Rorschach Inkblot

58 Figure 12.7: TAT Drawing Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

59 Evaluation of Projective Tests
Drawbacks Scoring of responses based on subjective impressions. Problem of stimulus pull. Questions about overall validity and utility. Contributions Tests can yield valuable information about personality unobtainable through self-report tests or interviews. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

60 Figure 12.8: Validity Coefficients of Psychological and Medical Tests
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61 Figure 12.8: Validity Coefficients of Psychological and Medical Tests (cont.)
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

62 Application: Building Self-Esteem
Module 12.6 Application: Building Self-Esteem Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

63 Module 12.6 Preview Question
What are some ways of building self-esteem? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

64 Building Self-Esteem Acquire competencies
Set realistic, achievable goals Enhance self-efficacy expectations Create a sense of meaningfulness in your life Challenge perfectionistic expectations Challenge need for constant approval Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


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