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Understanding Operating Systems Fifth Edition Chapter 12 System Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Operating Systems Fifth Edition Chapter 12 System Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Operating Systems Fifth Edition Chapter 12 System Management

2 Evaluating an Operating System To evaluate an OS, you need to understand: –Its design goals and history –How it communicates with users –How its resources are managed –What tradeoffs were made to achieve goals Operating system’s strengths and weaknesses need to be weighed in relation to: Users of the OS Hardware on which the OS will run Purpose Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition2

3 Cooperation Among Components Performance dependency –One resource depends on other system resources System improvement –Requires extensive analysis of the needs of the System’s resources, requirements, managers, users System change results –Trade one problem for another Consider entire system performance –Not just individual components Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition3

4 Role of Memory Management Consider actual operating environment –Before memory-related changes Tradeoff –Memory use versus CPU overhead –As the memory management algorithm complexity increases, the CPU overhead increases, which could affect overall system performance But for some operating systems, adding more memory can result in a remarkable improvement in performance Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition4

5 Role of Processor Management –A multiprogramming system may be desirable if you wish to increase CPU utilization but this –Requires synchronization Memory manager, processor manager, and I/O devices –Tradeoffs to consider Obtain better CPU utilization versus increased overhead, slower response time, decreased throughput Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition5

6 Role of Processor Management (continued) Problems –System could reach saturation point If the CPU is fully utilized and still accepting additional jobs Will lead to higher overhead and less time to run programs –Under heavy loads CPU time required to manage I/O queues could dramatically increase the time required to run jobs –With long queues at channels, control units, and I/O devices, the CPU could be idle waiting for processes to finish I/O Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition6

7 Role of Device Management I/O device utilization improvement techniques include: –buffering, rescheduling I/O requests Tradeoffs involved: Increased CPU overhead Additional memory space used Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition7

8 Role of Device Management (continued) Buffering –CPU matches slower I/O device speed (and vice versa) –Requires memory space (buffers) –Tradeoff Less multiprogramming versus better I/O device use Rescheduling requests –Seeks to optimize I/O request time by reordering I/O queues –Overhead is involved, so the CPU and I/O device speeds must be weighed against the time it would take to execute the reordering algorithm Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition8

9 Role of Device Management (continued) Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition9

10 Role of Device Management (continued) Example: without reordering –CPU 1 and disk drive A Access track 1, track 9, track 1, track 9 Arm already located at track 1 Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition10

11 Role of Device Management (continued) Example: after reordering –Arm performs both accesses on Track 1 before traveling Track 9 (35 ms) Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition11

12 Role of Device Management (continued) Reordering requests not always warranted –Example: CPU 1 and much faster disk drive C Without reordering: access time = = 15 ms With reordering: access time = = 35 ms Reordering algorithm –Always on or always off –Requires reconfiguration by system admin to change –Initial setting Determined by evaluating system on average Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition12

13 Role of File Management The way in which files are stored on secondary storage can affect system performance Important considerations: –File organization Example: If a file is stored non-contiguously that has several sections residing in widely separated cylinders of a disk pack, sequentially accessing all of its records could be slow This requires compaction (defragmentation). This takes CPU time and makes the files unavailable to users during compaction. –Volume directory location Affects retrieval time Different schemes offer different flexibility but the tradeoff for file flexibility is CPU overhead File management is closely related to device on which files are stored Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition13

14 Role of File Management (continued) File management related to device where files stored Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition14

15 Role of Network Management Determines message priorities Tries to selects most efficient communication paths over multiple data communication lines The network manager allows a network admin to monitor the use of individual computers and shared hardware, and ensure software license agreement compliance Simplifies updating data files and programs on networked computers by coordinating changes through a server instead of making changes on individual computers. Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition15

16 Measuring System Performance Total system performance is the efficiency with which computer system meets goals System efficiency –Not easily measured –Affected by three components User programs, operating system programs, hardware System performance –Very subjective –Difficult to quantify –When quantifiable Not an absolute measure Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition16

17 Measurement Tools Measures/metrics of system performance: –Throughput –Capacity –Response time –Turnaround time –Resource utilization –Availability –Reliability Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition17

18 Measurement Tools (continued) Throughput Composite measure –Indicates system productivity as a whole –Measured under steady-state conditions –Example: quantities Number of jobs processed per day Number of online transactions handled per hour –Measures work volume handled by system unit Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition18

19 Measurement Tools (continued) Throughput bottlenecks –Capacity –Maximum throughput level Resources saturated Processes not passed along –Main memory over-committed Multiprogramming level reaches peak point. Leads to thrashing (memory manager continuously swaps pages between main memory and secondary storage and the CPU does not make much progress in executing jobs because it is too busy swapping pages). Monitored by hardware or software Bottleneck detection –Monitor queues at each resource Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition19

20 Measurement Tools (continued) Response time –Online interactive user –Interval required to process user request From when user presses key to send message until system indicates receipt of message Turnaround time –Batch job response time Time from job submission until output returned to user Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition20

21 Measurement Tools (continued) Dependencies: Whether in an online or batch system, this measure (response time or turnaround time) depends on both the: –Workload handled by system at time of request –Type of job or request being submitted Include –Average values and variance Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition21

22 Measurement Tools (continued) Resource utilization –How much unit contributing to overall operation –Percentage of time resource actually in use Example: CPU busy 60 percent of time? –Helps analyst determine Whether there is balance among system units Whether the system is I/O-bound or CPU-bound Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition22

23 Measurement Tools (continued) Availability –Indicates likelihood a resource will be available for use when a user needs it Influenced by: –Mean time between failures (MTBF) Average time unit is operational it before breaks down –Mean time to repair (MTTR) Average time needed to fix failed unit and put back in service Availability (A) = Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition23

24 Measurement Tools (continued) Reliability –Measures probability unit will not fail during given time period –Function of MTBF Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition24

25 Measurement Tools (continued) Performance measures –Avoid taking in isolation from system workload Overall system performance –Varies with time –Important to define actual working environment Before making generalizations Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition25

26 Feedback Loops Monitor system resource utilization for adjustments –Prevents processor time spent on overhead –More time executing jobs Feedback loop types –Negative feedback loop –Positive feedback loop Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition26

27 Feedback Loops (continued) Negative feedback loop –Process arrival rate decreased when system too congested Stabilized system Queue lengths close to estimated mean values Positive feedback loop –Arrival rate increased when system underutilized Paged virtual memory systems use this Implementation more difficult (than negative loops) Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition27

28 Feedback Loops (continued) Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition28

29 Feedback Loops (continued) Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition29

30 Monitoring Hardware monitors –More expensive –Minimum impact on system Outside and attached electronically –Examples: counters, clocks, comparative elements Software monitors –Relatively inexpensive –Distortion of analysis results Software monitor becomes part of system –Developed for each specific system –Difficult to move from system to system Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition30

31 Monitoring (continued) Early systems performance measurements –Monitored CPU speed Today’s measurements –Other hardware units, operating system, compilers, other system software Measurements made in variety of ways –Real programs: production programs Run with different configurations of CPUs, operating systems, other components Results called benchmarks –Using simulation models Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition31

32 Monitoring (continued) Benchmarks –Demonstrate specific advantages New CPU, operating system, compiler, or piece of hardware –Useful when comparing systems experiencing extensive changes –Results dependent upon: System’s workload System’s design and implementation Specific requirements of applications loaded on system Understanding Operating Systems, Fifth Edition32


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