2Schachter-Singer “Two-factor” Theory: Emotion = Body Plus a Cognitive Label The Schachter-Singer “two-factor” theory suggests that emotions do not exist until we add a label to whatever body sensations we are feeling.In a study by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer in 1962, subjects experienced a spillover effect when arousal was caused by injections of what turned out to be adrenaline. The subjects interpreted their agitation to whatever emotion the others in the room appeared to be feeling; the emotional label “spilled over” from others.Click to reveal bullets.Stanley Schachter ( ) and Jerome Singer (d. 2010) developed the “two-factor” theory of emotion in 1962.I face a stranger, and my heart is pounding. Is it fear? Excitement? Anger? Lust? Or did I have too much caffeine? The label completes the emotion.
3Robert Zajonc, Joseph LeDoux, and Richard Lazarus: Emotions without Awareness/Cognition Theory: some emotional reactions, especially fears, likes, and dislikes, develop in a “low road” through the brain, skipping conscious thought.In one study, people showed an amygdala response to certain images (above, left) without being aware of the image or their reaction.Click to reveal bullets.Richard Lazarus ( ) notes that some “top-down” cognitive functions such as threat-appraisal can be involved, but these emotional responses can still operate without conscious thought.Joseph LeDoux (b. 1949) and Robert Zajonc ( ) proposed their ideas in the second half of the 20th century.
4When Appraisal Affects Emotion Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer highlighted the role of appraisal in labeling consciously experienced emotions: “this agitation is fear.”Richard Lazarus noted that even in emotional responses that operate without conscious thought, “top-down” cognitive functions such as appraisal of stimuli (is that a threat or something I would enjoy?) can be involved .No animation.
5Detecting Emotion in Others People read a great deal of emotional content in the eyes (“the window to the soul”) and the faces.Introverts are better at detecting emotions; extroverts have emotions that are easier to read.We are primed to quickly detect negative emotions, and even negative emotion words.Those who have been abused are biased toward seeing fearful faces as angry, as in the test below.These faces morph from fear to anger.Raise your hand when you first see anger under the red box.Click to reveal bullets. Then, when you see the red box appear, the next click starts the animation.
6Detecting Lies and Fakes Brain signs of lying:Polygraphs (detecting physiological arousal) fail sometimes at correctly identifying when people are lying.Visible signs of lying: eye blinks decrease, and other facial movements change.In which image is Paul Ekman “lying” with a fake smile? A real smile uses involuntary muscles around the eyes.Click to reveal bullets.
7Culture and Emotional Expression: Are There Universally Recognized Emotions? There seem to be some universally understood facial expressions.People of various cultures agree on the emotional labels for the expressions on the faces on the right.People in other studies did have more accuracy judging emotions from their own culture.Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: you can challenge students by asking them to make quicker judgments about similar images. “Which one in the first row is closer to “joy”? [left is happy, right is surprise]. Which one in the second row is “sad”? [left is sad, right is afraid]Which one in the last row is “angry”? [left is anger, right is disgust]. See if students can see the differences in the nose and eyes in the image on the right.
8Emotion Detection and Context Cues What emotions do you see below?How can you tell what emotions he is feeling?Because the faces are exactly the same, our detection of emotion must be based on context: the situation, gestures, and the tears.No animation.
9Is Experienced Emotion as Universal as Expressed Emotion? Carroll Izzard suggested that there are ten basic emotions: those evident at birth (seen here) plus contempt, shame, and guilt.No animation.
10Closer Look at a Particular Emotion: Anger A flash of anger gives us energy and initiative to fight or otherwise take action when necessary.Persistent anger can cause more harm than whatever we’re angry about.Some ways to keep anger from persisting: distraction, constructive action, problem-solving, exercise, verbal expression, and allowing others to be wrong.The catharsis myth refers to the idea that we can reduce anger by “releasing” it, and we do this by acting aggressively (yelling, punching a pillow).In most cases, expressing anger worsens it, and any “release” reinforces the aggression, making it a conditioned habit.Sometimes, releasing anger causes harm, and results in guilt.Instead, try calming down and moving on.Click to reveal bullets and sidebar.
11Closer Look at a Particular Emotion: Happiness There are behaviors that seem to go with happiness.Researchers have found that happy people tend to:However, happiness seems not much related to other factors, such as:Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries)Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeableHave close friendships or a satisfying marriageHave work and leisure that engage their skillsHave an active religious faithSleep well and exerciseAge (example: the woman at the laptop in the picture)Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful)Parenthood (having children or not)Physical attractivenessNo animation.There also may be a genetic basis for a predisposition to happiness. Whether because of genes, culture, or personal history, we each seem to develop a mood “set point,” a level of happiness to which we keep returning.
12Stress: A Focus of Health Psychology Many people report being affected by “stress.”Some terms psychologists use to talk about stress:Stress refers to the process of appraising and responding to events which we consider threatening or challenging.a stressor is an event or condition which we view as threatening, challenging, or overwhelming.Examples include poverty, an explosion, a psychology test, feeling cold, being in a plane, and loud noises.appraisal refers to deciding whether to view something as a stressor.stress reaction refers to any emotional and physical responses to the stressor such as rapid heartbeat, elevated cortisol levels, and crying.Click to reveal bullets.
13StressorsStressors refer to the events and conditions that trigger our stress response, because they are perceived/ appraised as overwhelmingly challenging, threatening, and/or harmful.There may be a spectrum of levels of intensity and persistence of stressors.We can also see stressors as falling into one of three categories:catastrophes.significant life changes.chronic daily hassles.Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: the fourth category refers to the daily challenge of managing poverty, powerlessness, being a persistent target for injustice, discrimination, bullying, other low social/economic freedom, or facing oppression as a society or as a subgroup. For example, some readers of this text live under regimes or with competing groups that monitor and control their lives, lacking freedom and risking unexpected violence.
14The Body’s Stress Response System When encountering a sudden trauma or other stressor, our body acts to increase our resistance to threat and harm.Phase 1: The “fight or flight” sympathetic nervous system responds, reducing pain and increasing the heart rate.The core of the adrenal glands produces norepinephrine and epinephrine (adrenaline).This system, identified by Walter Cannon ( ), gives us energy to act.Phase 2: The brain sends signals to the outer part of the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other stress hormones. These focus us on planning adaptive coping strategies and resisting defeat by the stressor.Hans Selye ( ) indentified this extended “resistance” phase of the stress response, followed by:Click to reveal the three phases.Phase 3: Exhaustion.
15General Adaptation Syndrome [GAS] (Identified by Hans Selye): Our stress response system defends, then fatigues.No animation.
16Effects of Prolonged Stress The General Adaptation Syndrome [GAS] works well for single exposures to stress.Repeated and prolonged stress, with too much Phase 3 time, leads to various signs of physical deterioration and premature aging:the production of new neurons declinesneural circuits in the brain break downDNA telomeres (chromosome tips) shorten, cells lose ability to divide, cells die, tissue stops regenerating, early aging and deathClick to reveal bullets.
17Health Consequences of Chronic Stress: The Repeated Release of Stress Hormones The stress hormone cortisol helps our bodies respond to brief stress.Chronically high cortisol levels damage the body.No animation.
18Female and Male Stress Response In response to a stressor such as the death of a loved one, women may “tend and befriend”: nurture themselves and others, and bond together.The bonding hormone oxytocin may play a role in this bonding.Women show behavioral and neurological signs of becoming more empathetic under stress.Men under stress are more likely to socially withdraw and numb themselves with alcohol.Men are also more likely to become aggressive under stress.In either case, men’s behavior and brains show LESS empathy and less tuning in to others under stress.Click to reveal bullets under each picture.
19Type A PersonalityStress Heart Disease Some personality traits tend to cluster into personality types.People with a type A personality are impatient, verbally aggressive, and always pushing themselves and others to achieve.People with a type B personality are more relaxed and go with the flow.In one study, heart attacks ONLY struck people with Type A traits.Click to reveal bullets.Accomplishing goals is healthy, but a compulsion to always be working, with little time spent “smelling the flowers,” is not.
20Pessimism and Heart Disease It can be helpful to realistically anticipate negative events that may happen, and to plan how to prevent or cope with them.Pessimism refers to the assumption that negative outcomes will happen, and often facing them by complaining and/or giving up.Click to show text boxes.Suppressing negative emotions only worsens the risk of heart disease. Reducing risk comes from a genuine change in attitude and treatment of factors related to negative emotions.Men who are generally pessimistic are more likely to develop heart disease within ten years than optimists.
21Stress factor: Perceived Level of Control Experiment: the left and middle rats below received shocks. The rat on the left was able to turn off the shocks for both rats. Which rat had the worst stress and health problems?Only the middle, subordinate rat had increased ulcers.It is not the level of shock, but the level of control over the shock, which created stress.Click to reveal bullets.
22Promoting Health: Social Support Having close relationships is associated with improved health, immune functioning, and longevity.Social support, including from pets, provides a calming effect that reduces blood pressure and stress hormones.Confiding in others helps manage painful feelings.Laughter helps too.Click to reveal bullets.“Well, I think you’re wonderful.”
23Aerobic Exercise and Health Aerobic exercise refers to sustained activity that raises heart rate and oxygen consumption.Aerobic exercise reduces depression and anxiety, and improves stress management, and is correlated with high confidence, vitality, and energy, and good mood.Aerobic exercise triggers certain genes to produce proteins which guard against more than 20 chronic diseases and conditions.Aerobic exercise reduces the risk of heart disease, cognitive decline and dementia, and early death.Click to reveal bullets and text box.Instructor: if you are not familiar with the sport of “Ultimate,” here’s a two-sentence summary. You and up to six teammates make passes (with a disc, usually not a “Frisbee” brand) to each other down a field to score by catching the disc in an end zone. Any incomplete pass is a turnover and the defense instantly picks up the disc and becomes the offense, making passes to move the disc toward the other end zone.Another comment to make about aerobic exercise in Ultimate: you can’t run with the disc, so catching the disc and looking for a teammate to throw to gives you a running break of about two to ten seconds (the time limit for making the next pass).