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34 Network Type Max Nodes Per Segment Max Distance Per Segment 10BASE-T 10BASE2 10BASE5 10BASE-FL m 185m 500m 2000m

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39 Next Point-to-Point Data Transmission Technologies RS232 USB Infra Red (IR) (wireless) Bluetooth (wireless) 39

40 RS232 - History PC: COM1, COM2 (MODEM & RS232) RS232 is serial a I/O interfacing standard (protocol) set by Electronics Industries Association (EIA) in : RS232A 1965: RS232B 1969: RS232C RS232 is limited to 20Kbps for 50ft. 40 FemaleMale DB-25 DB

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42 RS-232 RS-232 is currently the most commonly used serial standard for modem communication. Commonly referred to as a serial port. Most commonly implemented using DB-25 or DB-9 connectors. Problem with RS-232: –Slow. –Supports only one device per port. –Requires lots of configuration to attach a device. 42

43 DCE vs. DTE In the RS-232, the these terms are used: Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) (the PC) Data Communication Equipment (DCE) (the modem) 43

44 Universal Serial Bus (USB) USB has replaced RS-232 in most of the applications. a high speed, multi-point serial communications technology developed to resolve these shortcomings of RS-232. There are two versions of USB currently available: the original USB 1.1 specification and a newer higher speed USB 2.0 specification. USB 2.0 is backward compatible with USB

45 Universal Serial Bus - USB USB can be used to connect several devices on the same port using hubs. 45

46 USB Connector Cable There are two styles of USB connector in current widespread use (A & B). These are also found in male and female forms when used in extension cables. 46

47 Parallel Transmission A common means of connecting printers to PCs 47

48 Wireless Transmission Frequency range (line of sight): –26 GHz to 40 GHz: for microwave with highly directional beam as possible –30 MHz to 1 GHz: for omnidirectional applications –300MHz to GHz: for infrared spectrum; used for point to point and multiple point application (line of sight) –Satellite is a microwave relay station

49 Wireless communication Infrared (IR) –Uses electronic wave frequencies just below visible light spectrum –Diode emits infrared light to generate signal –Infrared transistor detects signal, conducts when exposed to infrared light –Cheap to build transmitter and receiver circuits –Need line of sight, limited range Radio frequency (RF) –Uses electromagnetic wave frequencies in radio spectrum –Analog circuitry and antenna needed on both sides of transmission –Line of sight not needed, transmitter power determines range 49

50 Wireless communication Infrared (IR) –Uses electronic wave frequencies just below visible light spectrum –Diode emits infrared light to generate signal –Infrared transistor detects signal, conducts when exposed to infrared light –Cheap to build transmitter and receiver circuits –Need line of sight, limited range Radio frequency (RF) –Uses electromagnetic wave frequencies in radio spectrum –Analog circuitry and antenna needed on both sides of transmission –Line of sight not needed, transmitter power determines range 50

51 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 51

52 RF Table 52 Aeronautical/Maritime9 KHz KHz AM radio535 KHz - 1,700 KHz Shortwave radio5.9 MHz MHz Citizen's Band (CB)26.96 MHz MHz TV stations MHz - 88 MHz FM radio88 MHz MHz TV stations MHz MHz Cell phones CDMA824 MHz MHz Cell phones GSM869 MHz MHz Air Traffic Control960 MHz - 1,215 MHz GPS1,227 MHz - 1,575 MHz Cell phones PCS1,850 MHz - 1,990 MHz

53 Wireless LAN HiperLAN (European standard; allow communication at up to 20 Mbps in 5 GHz range of the radio frquency (RF) spectrum. HiperLAN/2 operate at about 54 Mbps in the same RF band.

54 Bluetooth New global standard for wireless connectivity Based on low-cost, short-range radio link Connection established when within 10 meters of each other No line-of-sight required –e.g., Laptop connects to a printer in another room Bluetooth communicates at a frequency of 2.45 gigahertz, which has been set aside by international agreement for the use of Industrial, Scientific and Medical devices (ISM). 54

55 Bluetooth Products 55 The Sony Ericsson limited edition Car, with Bluetooth® wireless technology. It is a small race car, slightly larger than the size of a matchbox, that has two gears and is wirelessly controlled by a Bluetooth enabled Sony Ericsson mobile phone. Laptop, PDA, mobile communicating through Bluetooth Bluetooth USB adapter

56 Bluetooth Products 56

57 Bluetooth Products 57

58 Radio Transmission Frequencies ranging between 3 kHz to 300 GHz. Omni directional Can penetrate walls easily Used for multicast comm. (VHF & UHF) FM radio VHF TV Cellular phones Paging

59 Broadcast Radio Omnidirectional FM radio UHF and VHF television Line of sight Suffers from multipath interference –Reflections

60 Microwave Terrestrial Microwave Satellite Microwave

61 Microwave Applications Television distribution Long distance telephone transmission Short distance Private business networks Internetwork connections By-pass local telecommunication service Cellular phones Satellite network Wireless LANs

62 Terrestrial Microwave Parabolic dish Focused beam Line of sight Long haul telecommunications

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64 Satellite Microwave Satellite is relay station Satellite receives on one frequency, amplifies or repeats signal and transmits on another frequency Requires geo-stationary orbit –Height of 35,784km Television Long distance telephone

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66 Satellite Point to Point Link

67 Satellite Broadcast Link


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