Presentation on theme: "Bones are the framework of the vertebrate body and thus contain much information about man's adaptive mechanisms to his environment. The study of evolution."— Presentation transcript:
Bones are the framework of the vertebrate body and thus contain much information about man's adaptive mechanisms to his environment. The study of evolution essentially would be impossible if bones were eliminated as a source of data. In summary, the answer is that bones often survive the process of decay and provide the main evidence for the human form after death. Skeletal evidence also has the potential to provide information on prehistoric customs and diseases. From: "Human Osteology - A laboratory and Field Manual" 3rd Edition, 1987
Forensic Anthropology Chapter 18
Forensic Anthropology: -is the application of anthropological knowledge and techniques in a legal context. -This involves detailed knowledge of osteology (skeletal anatomy and biology) to aid in the identification and cause of death of skeletal remains, as well as the recovery of remains using archaeological techniques. Used to: ???? Anthropology is the study of humankind, culturally and physically, in all times and places.
Forensic Anthropology: first determine if the remains are in fact human. determine the gender approximate age physical stature likely racial affiliation approximate time since death, likely cause of death illnesses or wounds suffered in life. Taphonomy, study of decay This information can then be used to help identify the remains. Used to:
In humans, locomotion involves the interaction of: 1. Bones 2. Cartilage 3. Muscles 4. Tendons 5. Ligaments
1.They constitute the evidence for the study of fossil man. 2.They are the basis of racial classification in prehistory. 3.They are the means of biological comparison of prehistoric peoples with the present living descendents. 4.They bear witness to burial patterns and thus give evidence for the culture and world view of the people studied. 5.They form the major source of information on ancient diseases and often give clues as to the causes of death. 6.Their identification often helps solve forensic cases.
Objective: You will be able to discuss the impacts each scientist had on developing the field of forensics. Do Now: Read p. 2-3 (history and development of forensic science). List the names of former forensic scientists on p. 3. Leave space between each.
1a. Sex Determination
Male pelvis from female: 1.spread of ilium: female more flared and cradle-like with anterior iliac spines farther apart vs. more straight up-and-down in male 2.shape of hole in ischium: smaller and triangular in female vs. larger and rounded in male Shape of the Obturator Foramen, 3.angle across pubic symphysis = pubic arch: less than 90° (acute angle) and more sharply angled in male, greater than 90° (obtuse angle) and more rounded in female 4.inner diameter and distance between ischia larger in female--big enough for head of baby to pass through
Objective: You will be able to explain how bones can help determine age and sex. Do Now: Read p (Forensic anthropology) Give all the information that a forensic anthropologists can infer from analyzing bones
1b. Age Determination 1.Skull - gross 2.Deciduous dentition 3.Long bone ossification 4.Subadult vertebra
The Calvarium The calvaria (or calva, skullcap) is the upper part of the cranium and surrounds the cranial cavity containing the brain. It is formed by the following bones: frontal bone parietal bones (two) temporal bones (two) occipital bone
Aged 31 weeks, 32 weeks, and 40 weeks Notice, apart from the difference in size, how the fontanels (the soft spots that ultimately become the sutures, or fixed joints between the bones in the skull) change over time, gradually becoming smaller.
Take the following two images, and try to figure out the approximate age of the bottom image
If you had a hard time, perhaps it is due to the fact that the 2nd image was of... a chimpanzee skull! In the same way, bear claws are often confused with human hands. Can you tell which is which?:
Dentition 0-5 years
1c. Determination Stature
1d. Identity Determination
The head of the humerus and glenoid cavity shown in this photograph were in complete contact for many years prior to this individual's death. The surfaces are smooth and shiny, indicating that the joint capsule and cartilage had worn away, allowing bone on bone contact in the cavity.
2. Race Human Biological Variation "...it is clear that race does mean different things to different people. In the context of forensic anthropology, the term race is unambiguous." - Stan Rhine, PhD American Negroid American Indian Caucasoid
2. Race Human Biological Variation Skull can be divided into 4 main human races: Caucasoid Negroid Mongoloid Australoid Caucasoid further divisible into Northern European (Nordic) Central European (Alpine) Southern European (Mediterranean) American Negroid American Indian Caucasoid
2.Race Determination The metopic suture is generally a Caucasoid trait. This suture is present in the fetus as the cranial bones are forming.
Native American Australian Aborigine Male European Male Asian MaleAfrican Male
These two mandibles are compared for the extent of ramus inversion. Negroids exhibit moderate to pronounced inversion in the area midway up the posterior edge of the ramus. Caucasoids and Mongoloids show little or no inversion.
Adult's Wrist and Hand The white lines shown at the end (epiphysis) of the long bones. These areas, called the epiphyseal lines, form when the growth plates turn to bone.
Child's Wrist and Hand The clear lines at the end (epiphysis) of the long bones. These areas, which are made of cartilage, are the epiphyseal plates, where growth occurs.
In an adult hand (i.e., by the early to mid twenties)the growth plate has completely ossified (turned to bone). At that point, the bones stop growing. On the x-ray, these epiphyseal lines will appear as white lines in the same location as the plates were in the child's x-ray
Sternal Defect Scoliosis
Machete Wounds, African Male
Hammer Wounds Broad Axe Trauma, Male Spanish Conquistador, 1680 AD
GSWs, or gun shot wounds, leave tell-tale signs on the skull:
Large Caliber GSW
Note the fact that the rib started to grow around the.22 caliber bullet. That's antemoretem!
Reconstruction of the face from the bones of a skull.
Inward slant is characteristic of entrance wounds
Arrow pointing to entrance, the exit is closest
Close range gunshot leaves powder burns
Copper stain (b)
5. Taphonomy: from the Greek taphos (death), Study of what happens to an organism after its death and until its discovery as a fossil. This includes decomposition, post-mortem transport, burial, compaction, and other chemical, biologic, or physical activity which affects the remains (bones) of the organism Adipocere Burning Carnivore Insects Natural mummification Faunal
5. Taphonomy: Adipocere Bodies deposited in unoxygenated, wet environments often retain fatty tissues in the form of Adipocere. The hydrolysis of fatty acids produces the waxy substance which may may leave the body in a state of preservation for many decades. Organs such as the eyes, brain and subcutaneous adipose tissue in the face have decomposed into adipocere in this example.
5. Taphonomy: Carnivore This is a full view of the damaged femur. Notice how the ends seem to be the preferred part of the bone.
5. Taphonomy: Faunal archaeological faunal analysis is determining the origins of bone.
This individual was identified when it was found that the amalgam found in her dental work came from only a handful of places along east coast.
Dentition: the study of tooth remains In an adult human there are 32 teeth. On each side of upper and lower jaw (a quadrant) there are 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars and 2 or 3 molars (depending of wisdom teeth). In children there are 20 teeth. The breakdown is 2 incisors, 1 canine and 2 molars in each quadrant.
Paleopathology 1.Congenital Defects (need content)Congenital Defects (need content) 2.Infectious Disease (need content)Infectious Disease (need content) 3.Metabolic Defects (need content)Metabolic Defects (need content) 4.Nutritional Deficiencies (need content)Nutritional Deficiencies (need content) 5.Artificial Deformation (in progress)Artificial Deformation (in progress) 6.Fractures (in progress)Fractures (in progress) 7.Blunt and Sharp force injury (in progress)Blunt and Sharp force injury (in progress) 8.Markers of Occupational stress (need content)Markers of Occupational stress (need content)
FINIS Special thanks to forensic_anthropology/skeleton_evidence.htmhttp://shs.westport.k12.ct.us/forensics/11- forensic_anthropology/skeleton_evidence.htm