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Chapter 12 Investments ( 投資 ) Instructor: Chih-Liang Julian Liu Department of Industrial and Business Management Chang Gung University.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Investments ( 投資 ) Instructor: Chih-Liang Julian Liu Department of Industrial and Business Management Chang Gung University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 Investments ( 投資 ) Instructor: Chih-Liang Julian Liu Department of Industrial and Business Management Chang Gung University

2 Corporation Debt (ch.10) Share (ch.11) Financing Investing Debt Share $ $

3 Chapter12 Investments Learning Objectives 1.Discuss why corporations invest in debt ( 債券 ) and share ( 股票 ) securities. 2.Explain the accounting for debt investments. 3.Explain the accounting for share investments. 4.Describe the use of consolidated financial statements ( 合併財務報表 ). 5.Indicate how debt and share investments are reported in financial statements. 6.Distinguish between short-term and long-term investments ( 短期與長期投資 ).

4 Preview of Chapter 12

5 Corporations purchase investments in debt or share securities for one of three reasons. 1.Corporation may have excess cash. 2.To generate earnings from investment income. 3.For strategic reasons. Temporary investments and the operating cycle Why Corporations Invest Illustration 12-1

6 Question Pension funds and banks regularly invest in debt and share securities to: a.house excess cash until needed. b.generate earnings. c.meet strategic goals. d.avoid a takeover by disgruntled investors. Why Corporations Invest

7 Debt investments are investments in government and corporation bonds. In accounting for debt investments, firms make entries to record (1) The acquisition, (2) the interest revenue, and (3) the sale Accounting for Debt Investments

8 Recording Acquisition of Bonds Cost includes all expenditures necessary to acquire these investments, such as the price paid plus brokerage fees (commissions), if any. Recording Bond Interest Calculate and record interest revenue based upon the carrying value of the bond times the interest rate times the portion of the year the bond is outstanding. Accounting for Debt Investments

9 Illustration: Kuhl Corporation acquires 50 Doan Inc. 8%, 10-year, €1,000 bonds on January 1, 2014, for €50,000. The entry to record the investment is: Cash 50,000 Debt Investments 50,000Jan. 1 Accounting for Debt Investments

10 Illustration: Kuhl Corporation acquires 50 Doan Inc. 8%, 10-year, €1,000 bonds on January 1, 2014, for €50,000. The bonds pay interest semiannually on July 1 and January 1. The entry for the receipt of interest on July 1 is: Cash 2,000 Interest Revenue2,000 * (€50,000 x 8% x ½ = €2,000) * July 1 Accounting for Debt Investments

11 Illustration: If Kuhl Corporation’s fiscal year ends on December 31, prepare the entry to accrue interest since July 1. Interest Receivable2,000 Interest Revenue2,000 (Other income and expenses) Kuhl reports receipt of the interest on January 1 as follows. Cash2,000 Interest Receivable2,000 Dec. 31 Jan. 1 Accounting for Debt Investments

12 Credit the investment account for the cost of the bonds and record as a gain or loss any difference between the net proceeds from the sale (sales price less brokerage fees) and the cost of the bonds. Accounting for Debt Investments Cash Bonds (Investments) Buy Debt Investments Cash Sale Cash Debt Investments Recording Sale of Bonds

13 Illustration: Assume that Kuhl corporation receives net proceeds of €54,000 on the sale of the Doan Inc. bonds on January 1, 2015, after receiving the interest due. Prepare the entry to record the sale of the bonds. Cash54,000 Debt Investments50,000 Gain on Sale of Debt Investments4,000 (Other income and expense) Jan. 1 Accounting for Debt Investments

14 When bonds are sold, the gain or loss on sale is the difference between the: a.sales price and the cost of the bonds. b.net proceeds and the cost of the bonds. c.sales price and the market value of the bonds. d.net proceeds and the market value of the bonds. Accounting for Debt Investments Question

15 Share investments are investments in the shares of other corporations. When a company holds shares of several different corporations, the group of securities is identified as an investment portfolio. The accounting for investments in shares depends on the extent of the investor’s influence over the operating and financial affairs of the issuing corporation (the investee). Accounting for Share Investments

16 % % % insignificant influence on Investee Significant influence on Investee Controlling usually exists Investment valued using Cost Method Investment valued using Equity Method Consolidated financial statements Investor’s Ownership Interest in Investee’s Ordinary Shares The accounting depends on the extent of the investor’s influence over the operating and financial affairs of the issuing corporation (the Investee). Accounting for Share Investments

17 Companies use the cost method. Under the cost method, companies record the investment at cost, and recognize revenue only when cash dividends are received. Accounting for Share Investments Holding of Less than 20% Cost includes all expenditures necessary to acquire these investments, such as the price paid plus any brokerage fees (commissions).

18 July 1 Illustration: On July 1, 2014, Lee Corporation acquires 1,000 shares (10% ownership) of Beal Corporation. Lee pays HK$405 per share. The entry for the purchase is: Share Investments405,000 Cash405,000 Holding of Less than 20% Recording Acquisition of Share Investments

19 Dec. 31 Illustration: During the time Lee owns the shares, it makes entries for any cash dividends received. If Lee receives a HK$20 per share dividend on December 31, the entry is: Cash20,000 Dividend Revenue20,000 (Other income and expense) Holding of Less than 20% Recording Dividends

20 Feb. 10 Illustration: Assume that Lee Corporation receives net proceeds of HK$395,000 on the sale of its Beal shares on February 10, Because the shares cost HK$405,000, Lee incurred a loss of HK$10,000. The entry to record the sale is: Cash 395,000 Share Investments405,000 Holding of Less than 20% Recording Sale of Shares Loss on Sale of Share Investments 10,000 (Other income and expense)

21 Equity Method: Record the investment at cost and subsequently adjusts the investment account each period for the  investor’s share of the associate’s (investee’s) net income and  dividends received by the investor. If investor’s share of investee’s losses exceeds the carrying amount of the investment, the investor ordinarily should discontinue applying the equity method. Accounting for Share Investments Holding Between 20% and 50%

22 Investee (Tuner Broadcasting) Owns between 20% and 50% of the ordinary shares of a investee Investor has significant influence over an investee (associate) Investor (Time Warner) Net income Investment Proportionate share of associate’s net income Dividend Investment Decrease the investment account for the amount of dividends received

23 Illustration: Milar Corporation acquires 30% of the ordinary shares of Beck Company for ₤120,000 on January 1, For 2014, Beck reports net income of ₤100,000 and paid dividends of ₤40,000. Prepare the entries for these transactions. Share Investments 120,000 Cash 120,000 Cash (₤40,000 x 30%) 12,000 Share Investments12,000 Share Investments (₤100,000 x 30%) 30,000 Revenue from Share Investments 30,000 Jan. 1 Dec. 31 Holdings Between 20% and 50%

24 Under the equity method, the investor records dividends received by crediting: a.Dividend Revenue. b.Investment Income. c.Revenue from Share Investment. d.Share Investments. Accounting for Debt Investments Question

25 After Milar posts the transactions for the year, its investment and revenue accounts will show the following. Illustration 12-4 Holdings Between 20% and 50%

26 Illustration 12-5 Examples of consolidated companies and their subsidiaries Parent Company ( 母公司 ) - When a company (investor) owns more than 50% of the ordinary shares of another entity.  Subsidiary (affiliated) company ( 子公司 ) – entity whose shares are owned by the parent company.  Parent generally prepares consolidated financial statements. Accounting for Share Investments Holdings of More than 50%

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28 Valuing and Reporting Investments Categories of Securities Debt investments are classified into two categories:  Trading securities  Held-for-collection securities These guidelines apply to all debt securities and to those share investments in which the holdings are less than 20%. Share investments are classified into two categories:  Trading securities  Non-trading securities

29 Valuing and Reporting Investments Categories of Securities

30 Trading Securities  Companies hold trading securities with the intention of selling them in a short period (generally less than a month).  Trading means frequent buying and selling.  Companies report trading securities at fair value, and report changes from cost as part of net income.  Classified as current asset. Categories of Securities

31 Illustration: Investments of Pace Corporation are classified as trading securities on December 31, The adjusting entry for Pace Corporation is: Dec. 31 Fair Value Adjustment—Trading7,000 Unrealized Gain—Income7,000 (Other income and expense) Illustration 12-7 Trading Securities

32  These securities can be classified as current assets or as non-current assets, depending on the intent of management (sell the securities within the next year or operating cycle).  Procedure for determining fair value and the unrealized gain or loss for these securities is the same as for trading securities.  Companies report securities at fair value, and report changes from cost as a component of equity. Non-Trading Securities Categories of Securities

33 Illustration: Assume that Ingrao Corporation has two securities that it classifies as non-trading. The adjusting entry for Ingrao Corporation is: Dec. 31Unrealized Gain or Loss—Equity9,537 Fair Value Adjustment—Non-trading9,537 Illustration 12-8 Non-Trading Securities

34 An unrealized loss on non-trading securities is: a.reported under Other Revenue and Expense in the income statement. b.closed-out at the end of the accounting period. c.reported as a separate component of equity. d.deducted from the cost of the investment. Accounting for Debt Investments Question

35 Also called marketable securities, are securities held by a company that are (1)readily marketable and (2)intended to be converted into cash within the next year or operating cycle, whichever is longer. Investments that do not meet both criteria are classified as long-term investments. Statement of Financial Position Presentation Short-Term Investments Illustration 12-9 Presentation of short-term investments

36 Presentation of Realized and Unrealized Gain or Loss Illustration Non-operating items related to investments Statement of Financial Position Presentation

37 Unrealized gain or loss on non-trading securities are reported as a separate component of equity. Illustration Realized and Unrealized Gain or Loss Statement of Financial Position Presentation

38 Classified Statement of Financial Position Illustration 12-12


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