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Microprocessor – Intro! Md. Atiqur Rahman Ahad. Introduction to Microcontrollers Parts of computer: CPU, memory, I/O CPU: Control and data path Memory:

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Presentation on theme: "Microprocessor – Intro! Md. Atiqur Rahman Ahad. Introduction to Microcontrollers Parts of computer: CPU, memory, I/O CPU: Control and data path Memory:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Microprocessor – Intro! Md. Atiqur Rahman Ahad

2 Introduction to Microcontrollers Parts of computer: CPU, memory, I/O CPU: Control and data path Memory: Stores instruction and data Input/output: Interact with the outside of computers

3 Why Study Microprocessor Design?

4 °(as reported in Microprocessor Report, Vol 13, No. 5) Emotion Engine: 6.2 GFLOPS, 75 million polygons per second Graphics Synthesizer: 2.4 Billion pixels per second Claim: Toy Story realism brought to games! Sony Playstation 2000

5 Why Study Microprocessor Design? Wireless Sensor Networks Platform Power Metering Application

6 Microcontrollers vs Microprocessors A microprocessor is a CPU on a single chip. If a microprocessor, its associated support circuitry, memory and peripheral I/O components are implemented on a single chip, it is a microcontroller.

7 What is an Embedded System? A combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a dedicated function. In some cases, embedded systems are part of a larger system or product, as is the case of an anti-lock braking system in a car. Contrast with general-purpose computer. Examples range from washing machines, cellular phones to missiles and space shuttles.

8 Embedded Systems –Operations managed behind the scenes by a microcontroller Microcontroller (MCU) –An integrated electronic computing device that includes three major components on a single chip Microprocessor (MPU) Memory I/O (Input/Output) ports

9 What is an Embedded System? Electronic devices that incorporate a computer (usually a microprocessor) within their implementation. A computer is used in such devices primarily as a means to simplify the system design and to provide flexibility. Often the user of the device is not even aware that a computer is present.

10 Killer apps! Communications network routers, switches, hubs. Childrens toys Fuel injection control, passenger environmental controls, anti-lock braking systems, Air bag controls, GPS mapping. Automotive Navigation systems, automatic landing systems, flight attitude controls, Engine controls, space exploration ……..

11 Where are the embedded devices?

12 Instrumentations: Data collection, oscilloscopes, signal generators, signal analyzers, power supplies. Industrial: Elevator controls, surveillance systems, robots. Home: Dishwashers, microwave ovens, VCRs, televisions, stereos, fire/security alarm systems, lawn sprinkler controls, thermostats, cameras, clock radios, answering machines. Printers, scanners, keyboards, displays, modems, hard disk drives, CD-ROM drives.

13 Embedded Rocks! Embedded processors account for 100% of worldwide microprocessor production! Embedded:desktop = 100:1

14 Embedded Systems is a big, fast growing industry $ 40 billions in 2000 $92.0 billion in 2008 $112.5 billion (estimated) by the end of 2013 Embedded hardware was worth $89.8 billion in 2008 and is expected to reach $109.6 billion in 2013 Embedded software generated $2.2 billion in 2008. This should increase to $2.9 billion in 2013 Microprocessors/Microcontrollers are the core of embedded systems.


16 Computer Technology Dramatic Change Processor –2X in speed every 1.5 years; 100X performance in last decade Memory –DRAM capacity: 2X / 2 years; 64X size in last decade –Cost per bit: improves about 25% per year Disk –capacity: > 2X in size every 1.0 years –Cost per bit: improves about 100% per year –250X size in last decade

17 Computer Technology Dramatic Change! State-of-the-art PC (at least…) –Processor clock speed: 5000 MegaHertz (5.0 GigaHertz) –Memory capacity: 4000 MegaBytes (4.0 GigaBytes) –Disk capacity:2000 GigaBytes (2.0 TeraBytes) –New units! Mega => Giga, Giga => Tera (Kilo, Mega, Giga, Tera, Peta, Exa, Zetta, Yotta = 10 24 ) Kilo, Mega, etc. are incorrect Terminologies!

18 Microprocessors are everywhere in our life.

19 Microcontroller Components – Memory Each memory location has a specific address We must supply an address to access the corresponding location R/W allows us to select reading or writing Various types of memory for different functions and speeds Memory location 0 Memory location 1 Memory location n-1 Memory location n-2 addressdata r/w

20 Microcontroller Components – Memory Read Only Memory - Memory that can only be read –Holds the program code for a microprocessor used in an embedded system where the code is always the same and is executed every time the system is switched on –Computer BIOS, boot-up information Other types of Read Only Memory –Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM) – Similar to ROM but can be erased (exposure to ultraviolet light) and reprogrammed –Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) – more common that EPROM because it can be erased by the microprocessor –Flash Memory, Ferroelectric RAM (FRAM), Magnetic Random Access Memory (MRAM)

21 Microcontroller Components – Memory Random Access Memory – used to store dynamic data when processor is running –Holds program code and data during execution –Can be accesses in any random order – unlike takes or disks Some types of RAM –Static RAM (SRAM) – Uses transistors to store bits, fast SRAM is used for cache –Dynamic RAM (DRAM) – Uses capacitors to store bits, must be refreshed, smaller and cheaper than SRAM Fast Page Mode (FPM), Extended Data Out (EDO) Synchrounous DRAM (SDRAM) – introduced in 1997 and replaced most DRAM in computers by 2000 Double Data Rate (DDR SDRAM) – uses both clock edges found today in most computers Direct Rambus DRAM (RDRAM) – somewhat of a flop

22 Microcontroller Components – CPU Smart part –Processes instructions and data –All the parts of a microprocessor Registers – fast memory used to store operands and other information –Condition register – positive/negative result –Exception register – overflow condition –Loop count register Load-store architecture Register 0 Register 1 Register n-1 data address r/w CPU ALU inst

23 Microcontroller Components – I/O Connection to the outside world Examples –Analog to Digital Converter –Temperature Sensor –Display –Communications Circuit

24 Microcontroller Components – BUS Group of wires used to transport information CPU to Memory –Address bus –Data bus CPU to I/O –Port mapped I/O – used when address space is limited, special instructions are needed for I/O –Memory mapped I/O – I/O looks like memory locations, easier to use and common in Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC)

25 MPU-Based Systems System hardware –Discrete components Microprocessor, Memory, and I/O –Components connected by buses Address, Data, and Control System software –A group of programs that monitors the functions of the entire system

26 MPU-Based Time and Temperature System

27 MCU-Based Systems Includes microprocessor, memory, I/O ports, and support devices (such as timers) on a single semiconductor chip Buses are generally not available to a system designer I/O ports are generally multiplexed and can be programmed to perform different functions

28 MCU-Based Time and Temperature System

29 Read -- Computer Architectures Princeton versus Harvard Architecture CISC versus RISC processors Microprocessors and Microcontrollers

30 Processor Performance CPU Time = # Cycles × Cycle Time = # Instructions × CPI × Cycle Time CPI: Cycles per instruction

31 Embedded System Programming Key factors in embedded programming –Speed – timing constraints, limited processing power –Code size – limited memory, power Programming methods –Machine Code – bits –Low level language – assembly –High level language – C, C++, Java –Application level language – Visual Basic, Access Levels of abstraction – factor out details to focus on few concepts at a time

32 Embedded System Programming Why use C in embedded programming? –Ease of management of large embedded projects –Provides an additional level above assembly programming –Fairly efficient –Supports access to I/O Why use assembly? –High speed, low code size –However, difficult to do a large project in assembly

33 From various sources

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