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12 - 1 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing.

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Presentation on theme: "12 - 1 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show FISCAL POLICY 12 C H A P T E R

3 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show LEGISLATIVE MANDATES Employment Act of 1946 Council of Economic Advisors (CEA) Joint Economic Committee (JEC)

4 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show FISCAL POLICY AND THE AD-AS MODEL Two Options Discretionary Fiscal Policy Non-Discretionary Fiscal Policy Expansionary Fiscal Policy To Reduce Unemployment… Increase Government Spending Tax Reductions Combinations of the Two

5 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Price level Real GDP (billions) EXPANSIONARY FISCAL POLICY Full $20 billion increase in aggregate demand AD 2 AD 1 $5 billion initial increase in spending the multiplier at work... P1P1 $490 $510 AS

6 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show To Reduce Inflation… Decrease Government Spending Tax Increases Combinations of the Two FISCAL POLICY AND THE AD-AS MODEL Contractionary Fiscal Policy

7 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Price level Real GDP (billions) CONTRACTIONARY FISCAL POLICY Full $20 billion decrease in aggregate demand AD 3 AD 4 $5 billion initial decrease in spending the multiplier at work... P2P2 $510 $522 AS P1P1

8 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show FINANCING OF DEFICITS AND DISPOSING OF SURPLUSES Borrowing vs. New Money Borrowing From The Public Money Creation Debt Retirement vs. Idle Surplus Debt Reduction Impounding Which Policy Option? G or T?

9 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show BUILT-IN STABILITY Net tax revenues vary directly with GDP Transfer payments behave the opposite way as tax collections Automatic or Built-In Stabilizers Economic Importance

10 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show BUILT-IN STABILITY GDP 1 GDP 2 GDP 3 Real Domestic Output, GDP Government Expenditures, G, and Tax Revenues, T Deficit Surplus T G

11 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show BUILT-IN STABILITY Tax Progressivity Progressive Tax System Proportional Tax System Regressive Tax System The more progressive the tax system, the greater the economy’s built-in stability.

12 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show FULL-EMPLOYMENT DEFICITS GDP 2 GDP 1 Real Domestic Output, GDP Government Expenditures, G, and Tax Revenues, T (billions) G T1T1 (Year 1)(Year 2) a b c $ No Change in Fiscal Policy

13 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show FULL-EMPLOYMENT DEFICITS GDP 4 GDP 3 Real Domestic Output, GDP Government Expenditures, G, and Tax Revenues, T (billions) T2T2 G T1T1 Year 3Year 4 d e f $ Discretionary Fiscal Policy Tax Decrease h g

14 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show EVALUATING FISCAL POLICY Full-Employment Budget Cyclical Deficit Recent U.S. Deficits & Surpluses Year Actual Deficit or Surplus Full-Employment Deficit or Surplus % -4.5% -4.7% -3.9% -2.9% -2.2% -1.4% -0.3% +0.8% +1.4% +2.4% +1.3% -1.5% -2.1% -2.4% -2.9% -2.8% -2.1% -2.0% -1.3% -0.9% -0.4% +0.3% +1.1% +0.8% -1.5%

15 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Italy Sweden Canada United Kingdom France United States Ireland Norway Japan GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE BUDGET DEFICITS OR SURPLUSES AS A PERCENTAGE OF GDP, 2002 Source: Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation

16 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show PROBLEMS, CRITICISMS, AND COMPLICATIONS Problems of Timing Recognition Lag Administrative Lag Operational Lag Political Considerations Political Business Cycles Offsetting State & Local Finance Crowding-Out Effect

17 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show FISCAL POLICY, AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND INFLATION Fiscal Policy: No Complications Price level Real GDP (billions) AD 1 AD 2 P1P1 $490 $510 AS

18 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show FISCAL POLICY, AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND INFLATION Fiscal Policy: Showing Crowding-out Effect or Net Export Effect Price level Real GDP (billions) AD 1 AD 2 P1P1 $490 $510 AS AD’ 2 $504

19 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show FISCAL POLICY IN THE OPEN ECONOMY Shocks Originating from Abroad Net Export Effect

20 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Forecasting the Future The Leading Indicators Average Workweek Initial Claims for Unemployment Insurance New Orders for Consumer Goods Vendor Performance New Orders for Capital Goods Building Permits for Houses Stock Prices Money Supply Interest-Rate Spread Consumer Expectations

21 ENDBACK fiscal policy Employment Act of 1946 Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) expansionary fiscal policy budget deficit contractionary fiscal policy budget surplus built-in stabilizer progressive tax system proportional tax system regressive tax system full-employment budget cyclical deficit political business cycle crowding-out effect net export effect Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Inc., 2005

22 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Legislative Mandate Fiscal Policy and the AD-AS Model Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Financing of Deficits and Disposing of Surpluses Built-In Stability Evaluating Fiscal Policy Problems, Criticisms, and Complications Fiscal Policy in the Open Economy Forecasting the Future Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Chapter 13 Money and Banking Next...


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