Presentation on theme: "Cleopatra Jaars Student Health Health Coorinator CPUT."— Presentation transcript:
Cleopatra Jaars Student Health Health Coorinator CPUT
The HIV pandemic threatens the development of the youth. Adolescents are at high risk of contracting HIV because their lifestyle often involves sexual exploration and experimentation Effective educational interventions are central to HIV prevention in South Africa The 2009 antenatal HIV sero-prevalence is 29.4% Challenge to achieve Millennium Development Goal number 6 namely to halt and reverse HIV epidemic
Sub-Sahara Africa had the highest global HIV infection rate in 2010, and remains the region that is worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic (UNAIDS, 2011:5) It is estimated that 5.24 million people in South Africa are infected with HIV/AIDS, and that 17.3 % of the population between the ages of 15 and 49 is HIV infected (Statistics South Africa, 2010:6).
While working as a clinical nurse practitioner in a primary health care (PHC) facility in the Eastern Sub-District of the Cape Metropole, Cape Town, the principal investigator (PI) observed an increasing number of high school learners diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The learners reported failure in practising safer sex and demonstrated little knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention. Based on the findings from the literature review, the topic has never before been investigated in these schools. The extent of these problems remains unexplored
The aim of the study was to investigate the reported level of HIV knowledge and sexual risk behaviour of grade 12 school learners in the Eastern Sub-District of the Cape Metropole, Cape Town
Determine the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among the school learners; Identify risky sexual behaviour that might increase the risk of HIV infection among the school learners; Determine whether knowledge of HIV/AIDS influences the sexual behaviour of the school learners; and Identify recommendations from the perspectives of the study participants towards improved strategies for the implementation of HIV/AIDS preventative programmes in schools.
The study was based on two theories: the need theory of Virginia Henderson (George, 2002:89), and Bandura’s social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986:1-75). These theories were adopted to guide the study, because Grade 12 school learners, as the target participants of this study, are faced with many challenges, and need the ability to function independently when making sexual choices.
A descriptive, non-experimental, research design was employed with a primarily quantitative approach. The study population comprised grade 12 learners from high schools in the Eastern Sub- District of the Cape Metropole in Cape Town (N=7940). The required sample size of 100 learners was determined with the support of a statistician The study made use of a random cluster sampling method. A total of 120 learners, from two public and two private schools, were approached to participate in the study.
Following the information sessions, 106 participants gave written informed consent to participant and questionnaires were distributed. Ninety-two questionnaires were completed correctly and 14 questionnaires were incomplete. From the 92 completed questionnaires, 32 were from private schools and 60 from public schools.
A self-completion semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data.
One school was conveniently selected by the PI for the pilot test, which used nine learners, representing 9% of the proposed study sample (N=100). The participants in, and the data obtained from, the pilot test were excluded from the main study. No adjustments were required of the methodology or the data collection tool.
Data was collected by the principal investigator and a trained field worker.
Data was entered into Microsoft Excel by the researcher The statistical analyses were conducted using Statistica (Version 8.1), Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data. Statistical associations were determined using ANOVA and the Mann-Whitney U tests A significance level of 5% (p≤0.05) was used as a guideline for determining the statistically significant relationships.
Ethical approval for the study was obtained(reference number N11/07/225) Additional permission was obtained from the Western Cape Department of Education Consent was obtained from school principal prior to the study. Written informed consent were obtained from all participants.
Question n=92 Correct N (%) Incorrect N (%) 6Meaning of HIV71 (77.2)21 (22.8) 7HIV Transmission18 (19.6)74 (80.4) 8 Minimizing the risk for contracting HIV through sexual intercourse 79 (85.9)13 (14.1) 9Substances for safe condom use8 (8.7)84 (91.3) 10Uses of antiretroviral drug52 (56.5)40 (43.5) 11HIV cure30 (32.7)62 (67.4) 12Traditional cure for HIV75 (81.5)17 (18.5) 16 Relationship between drug and alcohol use and risky sexual behaviour 82 (89.1)10 (10.9)
Question n=92 YesNoOther Sexually active 43 (46.7)47 (51.1)2(2.2) HIV testing 66 (71.7)26 (28.3) Sexual transmitted infections (STI) 7 (7.6)85 (92.4) Alcohol use before sex 23 (25%)69 (75%) Drug use before having sex 5 (5.4) 87 (94.6)
Sexual intercourse activity Total (n) N=45 % Vaginal3168.8 I don’t use condoms 920.0 Invalid Responses 817.8 Anal sex613.3 Oral sex24.4 Other00
The results show that the average HIV/AIDS knowledge score of participants was 60.73%. However, many gaps in HIV/AIDS knowledge were identified. Only 77.2% (n=71) of participants knew the meaning of HIV, 80.4% (n=74) did not know all the ways in which HIV can be transmitted and only 8.7% (n=8) knew how to safely use a condom. The majority of participants (67.4%; n=62) believed in the myth that HIV can be cured and 18.5% (n=17) reported that a traditional healer can cure HIV. With regard to risky behaviour, half of the participants at the time of the study (51%; n=47) reported sexual engagement and 20% (n=9) of these respondents did not use condoms. Furthermore, 25% (n=23) had used alcohol before having sex.
In view of these study findings, participants are exposing themselves to high risk sexual behaviour that may increase their chances of acquiring sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Several recommendations were identified, including the strengthening of HIV and STI education linked to sexual risk reduction, open communication and additional information sources, availability of condoms at schools and improved access to HIV testing at schools.
The study was limited to grade 12 learners from the Eastern Sub District within the Cape Town Metropole. Within the timeframe of data collection, grade 12 learners were preparing for final exams. The PI found it challenging to obtain access to schools. Furthermore, due to the sensitivity of the topic, self-reported attitudes and behaviours can be seen as a limitation, therefore a pilot study was done to minimize this inherent limitation.
Study Participants Stellenbosch University Supervisor: Mrs Talitha Crowley Co-supervisor: Dr Frederick Marais CPUT for funding me to attend the conference