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1 Light What you see (and dont see) is what you get.

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2 Theories of Light Wave Theory Particle Theory HuygensNewton Properties that support each theory Rectilinear Propagation Reflection Refraction Interference Diffraction Photoelectric Effect

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3 optical.com/html/images/em_spect.gif

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4 M.Spectrum.jpg

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5 Important Info re EM Spectrum V = f c = f c = 3 x 10 8 m/s in vacuum or air decreases to the right f, E increase to the right E = hf h = 6.63 x js 1 angstrom A = m 1 nanometer, nm = m

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6 The Photoelectric Effect Heinrich Hertz first observed this photoelectric effect in Hertz had observed that, under the right conditions, when light is shined on a metal, electrons are released.

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7 In 1905 Albert Einstein provided a daring extension of Planck's quantum hypothesis and was able to explain the photoelectric effect in detail. It was officially for this explanation of the photoelectric effect that Einstein received the Nobel Prize in The figure below shows a circuit that can be used to analyze the photoelectric effect. Expanding on Planck's quantum idea, Einstein proposed that the energy in the light was not spread uniformly throughout the beam of light. Rather, the energy of the light is contained in "packets" or quanta (the plural of quantum, a single "packet") each with energy of E = h f

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8 LASER Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation 1. The laser in its non-lasing state

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9 2. The flash tube fires and injects light into the ruby rod. The light excites atoms in the ruby.

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10 3. Some of these atoms emit photons.

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11 4. Some of these photons run in a direction parallel to the ruby's axis, so they bounce back and forth off the mirrors. As they pass through the crystal, they stimulate emission in other atoms.

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12 5. Monochromatic, single-phase, columnated light leaves the ruby through the half-silvered mirror -- laser light! AKA: coherent light

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51 Refraction The bending of light as it passes from one substance into another :

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53 This site is blocked from school…

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58 Index of Refraction, n n = speed of light in vacuum n = c speed of light in substance v n = sin I sin f Snells Law: n 1 sin 1 = n 2 sin 2

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59 The concept of refractive index is illustrated in Figure 1 below, focusing on the case of light passing from air through both glass and water. Notice that while both beams enter the denser material through the same angle of incidence with respect to the normal (60 degrees), the refraction for glass is almost 6 degrees greater than that for water due to the higher refractive index of glass.

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62 Problem Light travels from a vacuum into water (v = 2.25 x 10 8 m/s). Determine the index of refraction of water. n = c / v = 3x10 8 m/s 2.25 x 10 8 m/s n = 1.33

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63 Problem A ray of light travels from air into water at an angle of 60.0 o with the surface of the water. A. Find the angle of refraction. n = sin i / sin f sin f = sin i / n = f = sin -1 [sin30.0 o /1.33] f = 22.1 o

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64 B. Find the speed of light in water n = c / v v = c / n v = 3 x 10 8 m/s 1.33 v = 2.26 x 10 8 m/s

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65 i c, critical angle - limiting angle of incidence that results in angle of refraction of 90 o (red) For an angle greater than i c, total internal reflection occurs (dark blue)

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66 If a rod of glass is pulled to a very thin diameter, and light is shone in at one end, it cannot escape, and becomes "trapped" inside the glass rod. Even if the rod is bent or curved, the light continues to be totally internally reflected and continues it's passage along the rod from one end to the other with no loss to the outside. Great use has been made of this property of "light pipes" in recent years. A single glass fiber can carry a stream of light pulses from one end to another almost instantly, making for very rapid very efficient telephone and data connections. Also, if the fibers are bundled together correctly, images can be transmitted, even round curves and corners. /SBAM/SBAM.Prisms.html

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A. c = sin -1 (n 2 /n 1 ) c = sin -1 (1/2.45) = 24.1 o B. c = sin -1 (n 2 /n 1 ) c = sin -1 (1.33/2.45 = 32.9 o 72

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94 Light and Pigment Primary Colors of Light Red Green Blue (These are the secondary colors of pigment) Primary Colors of Pigment Yellow Cyan Magenta (These are the secondary colors of light)

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95 Mixing … Red+Blue = Magenta Blue+Green = Cyan Green+Red = Yellow Magenta+Cyan = Blue Cyan+Yellow = Green Yellow+Magenta = Red

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96 The three primary colors of light mixed together produce white light (all colors of light) - an additive process. The three primary colors of pigment mixed together produce black (absorbing all or most light) - a subtractive process.

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97 Diffraction- spreading of light around a barrier

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98 Constructive interference yields bright spots of light Destructive interference yields no light,

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99 Formula = d sin n, wavelength d, distance between slits n, order of magnitude, 0,1,2,…

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1.A 2-slit experiment is set up in which the slits are 0.03 m apart. A bright fringe is observed at an angle 10° from the normal. What sort of electromagnetic radiation was being used? = dsin = 0.03 x sin 10 = 5.21 x m 100 So, microwaves were being used.

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101 Problem Find the angle of n=3 fringe (order of image) if 2 slits 0.4 mm apart are illuminated by yellow light of of 600 nm. Sin = n /d = 3(600x10 -9 m)/4x10 -4 m = sin -1 (4.50x10 -3 ) = = = 2.58x10 -1 o

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102 Diffraction Grating Problem A grating has lines per cm. At what angles are maxima formed if it is illuminated with yellow light at 600.nm? Slit spacing is: d = 1cm/4000lines = 2.5x10 -4 cm= 2.5x10 3 nm sin =( n/d)= n(600nm)/2.5x10 3 nm=n(0.24) n=1, =sin -1 (1(0.24)=13.9 o n=2, =sin -1 (2(0.24)=28.7 o n=3, =sin -1 (3(0.24)=46.0 o

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2. Light, with a wavelength of 500 nm, is shone through 2 slits, which are 0.05 m apart. What are the angles to the normal of the first three dark fringes? n x 500 x = 0.05 x sin = arcsin nx500x10 -9 = arcsin(nx500x10 -9 ) 0.05 Then, substitute n = 1,3 and 5 to gain corresponding values of. n = 1: x n = 3: x n = 5: x

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104 Polarization

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106 Polarized Sunglasses Polarized sunglasses work by filtering out certain frequencies and orientations of light, such as ultra-violet, which is harmful to human eyes. In order to polarize a material for light, etches of scratches must be microscopically put into the material, so that only the light waves that are lined up with the scratches can pass through. This is the basis behind polarized sunglasses.

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